Analysis of mass-energy balance of unmanned aircraft fueled by solar energy

Vitalіy Sukhov, Yaroslav Kozei

Abstract


To understand the characteristics and principles of creation of an aircraft, fueled by solar energy, the fundamentals of providing mass-energy balance and its specificity were considered.

To create a mathematical model that describes interrelations between the basic parameters of an aircraft, fueled by solar energy, it was proposed to describe the main components in stages, namely:

– power, required for the implementation of a horizontal flight;

– total power consumption for performing of a flight, including take-off and

maneuvers;

– magnitude of energy, generated during a flight;

– total take-off mass of an aircraft.

The principles of power supply of the aircraft systems under all flight modes were defined. Under the mode of a horizontal flight, there should be enough power, generated by solar panels, to fuel all systems. The power surplus is accumulated in the battery. Under the takeoff and landing modes, as well as during a maneuver, the current deficit of the generated power may be compensated for by power of the battery.

We described the factors that affect performance of solar panels of an aircraft, in particular shading, V-shape of a wing, geometry of aerodynamic profile, cloudiness, and orientation relative to the Sun. The model is proposed for determining the mass of an aircraft in general, which takes into account weight characteristics of the industrial components of an aircraft.

Results of the study might be used in the process of creation of aircraft, fueled by solar energy, at the stage of outline design.

We obtained a generalized analytical model of mass-energy balance of an aircraft, taking into account common operation modes and the laws of solar energy generation, which allows us to conduct analytical prediction of characteristics of prototypes. The model combines technological, operational, and design parameters, and is the basis for the formation of algorithm for choosing the parameters of an aircraft fueled by solar energy. 


Keywords


mass-energy balance; aircraft fueled by solar energy; conditions of flight realization

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References


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GOST Style Citations


Abbe, G. Technological development trends in Solar‐powered Aircraft Systems [Text] / G. Abbe, H. Smith // Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. – 2016. – Vol. 60. – P. 770–783. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.053 

Gao, X.-Z. Reviews of methods to extract and store energy for solar-powered aircraft [Text] / X.-Z. Gao, Z.-X. Hou, Z. Guo, X.-Q. Chen // Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. – 2015. – Vol. 44. – P. 96–108. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.025 

Gao, X.-Z. Energy management strategy for solar-powered high-altitude long-endurance aircraft [Text] / X.-Z. Gao, Z.-X. Hou, Z. Guo, J.-X. Liu, X.-Q. Chen // Energy Conversion and Management. – 2013. – Vol. 70. – P. 20–30. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.01.007 

Gao, X.-Z. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage [Text] / X.-Z. Gao, Z.-X. Hou, Z. Guo, R.-F. Fan, X.-Q. Chen // Energy Conversion and Management. – 2013. – Vol. 76. – P. 986–995. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.08.023 

Barbosa, R. Sizing of a solar/hydrogen system for high altitude long endurance aircrafts [Text] / R. Barbosa, B. Escobar, V. M. Sanchez, J. Hernandez, R. Acosta, Y. Verde // International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. – 2014. – Vol. 39, Issue 29. – P. 16637–16645. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.05.152 

Fazelpour, F. Considerable parameters of using PV cells for solar-powered aircrafts [Text] / F. Fazelpour, M. Vafaeipour, O. Rahbari, R. Shirmohammadi // Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. – 2013. – Vol. 22. – P. 81–91. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.016 

Agarwal, R. K. Energy Optimization for Solar-Powered Aircraft [Text] / R. K. Agarwal // Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering. – 2015. – P. 1–17. doi: 10.1002/9780470686652.eae1010 

Sukhov, V. Current state and prospects of planes on solar energy in Ukraine [Text] / V. Sukhov, A. Ivashchuk, Y. Kozey // Journal of Mechanical Engineering the National Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute". – 2016. – Issue 77. – P. 5–14. doi: 10.20535/2305-9001.2016.77.71470 

Sukhov, V. Aerodinamіchne proektuvannja krila z sonjachnimi elementami [Aerodynamic design wing with solar cells] [Text] / V. Sukhov, Y. Kozey, A. Getman // Information systems, mechanics and control. – 2014. – Issue 11. – P. 111–119.

North, A. Design of solar powered airplanes for continuous flight [Text]: Ph.D. dissertation, diss. / A. North. – Switzerland, 2008. – 196 p.

Trofimenko, A. Samolety na solnechnyh batareyah – novyi instrument dlya provedeniya issledovaniy v Antarktike: osobennosti, preimushhestva, perspektivy [Solar-powered aircraft – a new tool for conducting research in Antarctica: features, advantages, prospects] [Text] / A. Trofimenko // Ukrainian Antarctic Journal. – 2012. – Issue 10-11. – P. 390–398.

Baldock, N. A study of solar‐powered, high‐altitude unmanned aerial vehicles [Text] / N. Baldock, M. R. Mokhtarzadeh‐Dehghan // Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology. – 2006. – Vol.78, Issue 3. – P. 187–193. doi: 10.1108/17488840610663648 

Aeronautical meteorological code METAR [Electronic resource]. – Meteocentr. – Available at: http://www.meteocenter.net/meteolib/metar.htm

Hall, D. W. Structural Sizing of a Solar Powered Aircraft [Text] / D. W. Hall, S. A. Hall. – United States, 1984. – No. NASA-CR-172313, NAS 1.26:172313, LMSC-D878711. – 105 р.

Stender, W. Sailplane Weight Estimation [Text] / W. Stender // Organisation Scientifique et Technique Internationale du Vol a Voile (OSITIV). – Bern, 1969. – 62 p.

Rehmet, M. A. Das Solarflugzeug Icare, Vorlaufer fur eine Kategorie Elektrisch Getriebener Flugzeuge [Text] / M. A. Rehmet, W. Scholz, R. Voit-Nitschmann. – Germany, 1995. – 99 р.

Solar Panel Мanufakturers [Electronic resource]. – ENF Solar definitive directory of solar companies and products. – Available at: https://www.enfsolar.com/directory/panel

Accumulators and Accessories [Electronic resource]. – Hobbyking. – Available at: https://www.hobbyking.com/ru_ru/batteries/lipoly-all-brands.html

Brushless motor for aircraft [Electronic resource]. – Planeta Hobby. – Available at: https://www.modelistam.com.ua/elektrodvigateli-aksessuary/beskollektornye-dlya-samoletov-c-238



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.101974

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061