DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133548

Influence of ultrasound and template on the properties of nickel hydroxide as an active substance of supercapacitors

Vadym Kovalenko, Valerii Kotok

Abstract


Nickel hydroxide is widely used as an active materials of supercapacitors. The most active are Ni(OH)2 (α+β) samples with layered structure synthesized in a slit-diaphragm electrolyzer. The study on the influence of template synthesis and ultrasound treatment on the characteristics of the samples was conducted. The synthesis of nickel hydroxide samples in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a template and the use of ultrasound treatment of the Ni(OH)2 suspension directly after formation was carried out. The synthesized samples of nickel hydroxide were studied by means X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption. Electrochemical characteristics were evaluated by means of galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling in the supercapacitor regime. Comparative analysis of the Ni(OH)2 sample has revealed both negative and positive effect of the template and ultrasound. The use of PVA as a template and ultrasound treatment resulted in a significant decrease in specific surface area (to 6 m2/g) and an increase of the average pore diameter (to 1181 Ǻ). Application of the template and ultrasound decreases crystallinity and increases the content of α-form, which results in the increased capacity of the samples. The maximum value of 233 F/g is achieved at a current density of 40 mA/cm2 obtained from the combined effect of the template and ultrasound. Under these conditions, the specific capacity of the sample prepared without the template and ultrasound is 76 F/g. However, with an increase of current density to 120 mA/cm2, the capacity of this sample increases to 303 F/g. At the same time, for samples synthesized with the template and ultrasound, a decrease of capacity is observed at higher current densities, which is related to difficulties in the breakdown of agglomerated particles. In case of the introduced template, this is explained by the binding effect of the remaining PVA and in case of ultrasound treatment – particle condensation. Based on the results of the comparative analysis, it is recommended to replace the template with a more easily removable one and also conduct an electrochemical synthesis of Ni(OH)2 in SDE directly in the ultrasound field and increase the power of the emitter.


Keywords


nickel hydroxide; specific capacity; supercapacitor; ultrasound treatment; template synthesis; polyvinyl alcohol

References


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Lang, J.-W., Kong, L.-B., Wu, W.-J., Liu, M., Luo, Y.-C., Kang, L. (2008). A facile approach to the preparation of loose-packed Ni(OH)2 nanoflake materials for electrochemical capacitors. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 13 (2), 333–340. doi: 10.1007/s10008-008-0560-0

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Zheng, C., Liu, X., Chen, Z., Wu, Z., Fang, D. (2014). Excellent supercapacitive performance of a reduced graphene oxide/Ni(OH)2 composite synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. Journal of Central South University, 21 (7), 2596–2603. doi: 10.1007/s11771-014-2218-7

Wang, B., Williams, G. R., Chang, Z., Jiang, M., Liu, J., Lei, X., Sun, X. (2014). Hierarchical NiAl Layered Double Hydroxide/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Foam Electrodes with Excellent Pseudocapacitive Properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6 (18), 16304–16311. doi: 10.1021/am504530e

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Kotok, V., Kovalenko, V. (2017). The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (11 (86)), 28–34. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371

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GOST Style Citations


Simon P., Gogotsi Y. Materials for electrochemical capacitors // Nature Materials. 2008. Vol. 7, Issue 11. P. 845–854. doi: 10.1038/nmat2297 

Burke A. R&D considerations for the performance and application of electrochemical capacitors // Electrochimica Acta. 2007. Vol. 53, Issue 3. P. 1083–1091. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2007.01.011 

Asymmetric supercapacitors based on stabilized α-Ni(OH)2 and activated carbon / Lang J.-W., Kong L.-B., Liu M., Luo Y.-C., Kang L. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2009. Vol. 14, Issue 8. P. 1533–1539. doi: 10.1007/s10008-009-0984-1 

A facile approach to the preparation of loose-packed Ni(OH)2 nanoflake materials for electrochemical capacitors / Lang J.-W., Kong L.-B., Wu W.-J., Liu M., Luo Y.-C., Kang L. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2008. Vol. 13, Issue 2. P. 333–340. doi: 10.1007/s10008-008-0560-0 

Electrochemical preparation of α-Ni(OH)2 ultrafine nanoparticles for high-performance supercapacitors / Aghazadeh M., Ghaemi M., Sabour B., Dalvand S. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2014. Vol. 18, Issue 6. P. 1569–1584. doi: 10.1007/s10008-014-2381-7 

Excellent supercapacitive performance of a reduced graphene oxide/Ni(OH)2 composite synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route / Zheng C., Liu X., Chen Z., Wu Z., Fang D. // Journal of Central South University. 2014. Vol. 21, Issue 7. P. 2596–2603. doi: 10.1007/s11771-014-2218-7 

Hierarchical NiAl Layered Double Hydroxide/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Foam Electrodes with Excellent Pseudocapacitive Properties / Wang B., Williams G. R., Chang Z., Jiang M., Liu J., Lei X., Sun X. // ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014. Vol. 6, Issue 18. P. 16304–16311. doi: 10.1021/am504530e 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V., Bolotin O. Definition of factors influencing on Ni(OH)2 electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2016. Vol. 5, Issue 6 (83). P. 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79406 

Ramesh T. N., Kamath P. V., Shivakumara C. Correlation of Structural Disorder with the Reversible Discharge Capacity of Nickel Hydroxide Electrode // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2005. Vol. 152, Issue 4. P. A806. doi: 10.1149/1.1865852 

Zhao Y., Zhu Z., Zhuang Q.-K. The relationship of spherical nano-Ni(OH)2 microstructure with its voltammetric behavior // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2005. Vol. 10, Issue 11. P. 914–919. doi: 10.1007/s10008-005-0035-5 

Jayashree R. S., Kamath P. V., Subbanna G. N. The Effect of Crystallinity on the Reversible Discharge Capacity of Nickel Hydroxide // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2000. Vol. 147, Issue 6. P. 2029. doi: 10.1149/1.1393480 

Jayashree R. S., Kamath P. V. Factors governing the electrochemical synthesis of a-nickel (II) hydroxide // Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 1999. Vol. 29, Issue 4. P. 449–454. doi: 10.1023/a:1003493711239 

Ramesh T. N., Kamath P. V. Synthesis of nickel hydroxide: Effect of precipitation conditions on phase selectivity and structural disorder // Journal of Power Sources. 2006. Vol. 156, Isuse 2. P. 655–661. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.05.050 

Rajamathi M., Vishnu Kamath P., Seshadri R. Polymorphism in nickel hydroxide: role of interstratification // Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2000. Vol. 10, Issue 2. P. 503–506. doi: 10.1039/a905651c 

Structural transformation and its effects on the electrochemical performances of a layered double hydroxide / Hu M., Yang Z., Lei L., Sun Y. // Journal of Power Sources. 2011. Vol. 196, Issue 3. P. 1569–1577. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.08.041 

Influence of temperature on the characteristics of Ni(II), Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides synthesised by different methods / Solovov V., Kovalenko V., Nikolenko N., Kotok V., Vlasova E. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 1, Issue 6 (85). P. 16–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90873 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Study of the influence of the template concentration under homogeneous precepitation on the properties of Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 4, Issue 6 (88). P. 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.106813 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Obtaining of Ni–Al layered double hydroxide by slit diaphragm electrolyzer // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 6 (86). P. 11–17. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.95699 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. The properties investigation of the faradaic supercapacitor electrode formed on foamed nickel substrate with polyvinyl alcohol using // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 4, Issue 12 (88). P. 31–37. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.108839 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 11 (86). P. 28–34. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371 

Vidotti M., Torresi R., Torresi S. I. C. de. Eletrodos modificados por hidróxido de níquel: um estudo de revisão sobre suas propriedades estruturais e eletroquímicas visando suas aplicações em eletrocatálise, eletrocromismo e baterias secundárias // Química Nova. 2010. Vol. 33, Issue 10. P. 2176–2186. doi: 10.1590/s0100-40422010001000030 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Definition of effectiveness of β-Ni(OH)2 application in the alkaline secondary cells and hybrid supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 5, Issue 6 (89). P. 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.110390 

Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy of α and β Phases of Thin Nickel Hydroxide Films Electrochemically Formed on Nickel / Hall D. S., Lockwood D. J., Poirier S., Bock C., MacDougall B. R. // The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2012. Vol. 116, Issue 25. P. 6771–6784. doi: 10.1021/jp303546r 

Dielectric, magnetic, and phonon properties of nickel hydroxide / Hermet P., Gourrier L., Bantignies J.-L., Ravot D., Michel T., Deabate S. et. al. // Physical Review B. 2011. Vol. 84, Issue 23. doi: 10.1103/physrevb.84.235211 

Characterization of Unusually Large “Pseudo-Single Crystal” of β-Nickel Hydroxide / Gourrier L., Deabate S., Michel T., Paillet M., Hermet P., Bantignies J.-L., Henn F. // The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2011. Vol. 115, Issue 30. P. 15067–15074. doi: 10.1021/jp203222t 

Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications / Kovalenko V. L., Kotok V. A., Sykchin A. A., Mudryi I. A., Ananchenko B. A., Burkov A. A. et. al. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2016. Vol. 21, Issue 3. P. 683–691. doi: 10.1007/s10008-016-3405-2 

Synthesis and electrochemical performance of mixed phase α/β nickel hydroxide by codoping with Ca2+ and PO4 3− / Miao C., Zhu Y., Zhao T., Jian X., Li W. // Ionics. 2015. Vol. 21, Issue 12. P. 3201–3208. doi: 10.1007/s11581-015-1507-y 

Synthesis and electrochemical performance of mixed phase α/β nickel hydroxide / Li Y., Yao J., Zhu Y., Zou Z., Wang H. // Journal of Power Sources. 2012. Vol. 203. P. 177–183. doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.11.081 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Comparative investigation of electrochemically synthesized (α+β) layered nickel hydroxide with mixture of α-Ni(OH)2 and β-Ni(OH)2 // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 2, Issue 6 (92). P. 16–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2018.125886 

Antifriction and Construction Materials Based on Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Reinforced with Mineral and Synthetic Fibrous Fillers / Burmistr M. V., Boiko V. S., Lipko E. O., Gerasimenko K. O., Gomza Y. P., Vesnin R. L. et. al. // Mechanics of Composite Materials. 2014. Vol. 50, Issue 2. P. 213–222. doi: 10.1007/s11029-014-9408-0 

Research of the mechanism of formation and properties of tripolyphosphate coating on the steel basis / Vlasova E., Kovalenko V., Kotok V., Vlasov S. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2016. Vol. 5, Issue 5 (83). P. 33–39. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79559 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Electrochromism of Ni(OH)2 films obtained by cathode template method with addition of Al, Zn, Co ions // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 3, Issue 12 (87). P. 38–43. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.103010 

Advanced electrochromic Ni(OH)2/PVA films formed by electrochemical template synthesis / Kotok V. A., Kovalenko V. L., Kovalenko P. V., Solovov V. A., Deabate S., Mehdi A. et. al. // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2017. Vol. 12, Issue 13. P. 3962–3977.

Facile synthesis of alfa-nickel hydroxide by an ultrasound-assisted method and its application in energy storage devices / Abbas S. A., Iqbal M. I., Kim S.-H., Abbas Khan H., Jung K.-D. // Applied Surface Science. 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.03.036 

Sonochemical synthesis and electrochemical characterization of α-nickel hydroxide: precursor effects / Ertaş F. S., Kaş R., Ünal U., Birer Ö. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2013. Vol. 17, Issue 5. P. 1455–1462. doi: 10.1007/s10008-013-2017-3 

Song Q. S., Li Y. Y., Chan S. L. I. Physical and electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured nickel hydroxide powder // Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 2005. Vol. 35, Issue 2. P. 157–162. doi: 10.1007/s10800-004-6301-x 

Facile sonochemical synthesis of nanostructured NiO with different particle sizes and its electrochemical properties for supercapacitor application / Duraisamy N., Numan A., Fatin S. O., Ramesh K., Ramesh S. // Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2016. Vol. 471. P. 136–144. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2016.03.013 

Ultrasound-assisted hexamethylenetetramine decomposition for the synthesis of alpha nickel hydroxide intercalated with different anions / Ertaş F. S., Saraç F. E., Ünal U., Birer Ö. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2015. Vol. 19, Issue 10. P. 3067–3077. doi: 10.1007/s10008-015-2929-1 

Sonochemical synthesis of nanostructured nickel hydroxide as an electrode material for improved electrochemical energy storage application / Numan A., Duraisamy N., Saiha Omar F., Gopi D., Ramesh K., Ramesh S. // Progress in Natural Science: Materials International. 2017. Vol. 27, Issue 4. P. 416–423. doi: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2017.06.003 

Cabanas-Polo S., Suslick K. S., Sanchez-Herencia A. J. Effect of reaction conditions on size and morphology of ultrasonically prepared Ni(OH)2 powders // Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2011. Vol. 18, Issue 4. P. 901–906. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.11.017 

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of mesoporous β-Ni(OH)2 and NiO nano-sheets using ionic liquids / Alammar T., Shekhah O., Wohlgemuth J., Mudring A.-V. // Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 22, Issue 35. P. 18252. doi: 10.1039/c2jm32849f 

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061