Controlling the process of explosive destruction of rocks in order to minimize dust formation and improve quality of rock mass

Oksana Tverda, Leonid Plyatsuk, Mykola Repin, Kostiantyn Tkachuk

Abstract


Based on the adapted model by G.N. Lyakhov, we established a pattern in the propagation of pressure waves during explosive destruction of rocks, which relates to acoustic rigidity of the gap filler between the charge and the wall of the well and its size. It was determined that an increase in the acoustic rigidity of the solution proposed to be uses as a gap filler between the charge and the well reduces the peak of pressure in the zone close to the charge. In addition, the amplitude width of the pressure wave increases. An increase in the magnitude of the gap through the use of charges with smaller diameters enhances the effect of reducing the volume of dust formation. We have established regularities in the propagation of pressure waves related to acoustic rigidity of the gap filler between the charge and the borehole wall, as well as its magnitude, for different types of rocks. Specifically, for basalt, diabase, gabbro, granite, and limestone. It was determined that solutions with larger acoustic rigidity would reduce the amount of dust formation and improve the homogeneity of fractional composition of rock mass. That is possible by reducing the amplitude of pressure waves at the media interface and by increasing the width of the amplitude in any rock. In particular, filling the gap with the aqueous solution of iron (III) sulfate could reduce the amplitude of pressure waves by 20 %. The research results are important as they make it possible to control the process of explosive destruction of rocks. Such a control can be executed by changing the acoustic rigidity of the gap filler between the charge and the well, and by changing its size. Adjusting these parameters would not worsen the explosion results, such as, for example, reducing the consumption of an explosive or decreasing a diameter of the charge. On the contrary, it will ensure a more uniform distribution of pressure waves in rock, thereby reducing not only the environmental load, but the cost of finished products as well.


Keywords


rocks; dust formation process; explosive destruction; re-shredding zone; fractional composition of rock mass

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References


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GOST Style Citations


Savotchenko O. M., Zberovskyi O. V. Doslidzhennia parametriv pylohazovykh vykydiv pry vybukhovykh robotakh u karierakh // Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Natsionalnoho hirnychoho universytetu. 2017. Issue 51. P. 218–226.

Isaiev S. D., Pashkov A. P. Zasib znyzhennia ymovirnosti nebezpechnoho navantazhennia na dovkillia ta liudynu vid velykomasshtabnykh masovykh vybukhiv na karierakh Ukrainy // Naukovi zapysky NaUKMA. 2009. Issue 93. P. 85–88.

Kozlovskaya T. F., Chebenko V. N. Puti snizheniya urovnya ehkologicheskoy opasnosti v rayonah dobychi poleznyh iskopaemyh otkrytym sposobom // Visnyk Kremenchutskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Mykhaila Ostrohradskoho. 2010. Issue 6 (65). P. 163–168.

Calamar A. N. Study regarding the environmental impact of gases generated by pit blasting operations // 15th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2015, Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation. 2011. doi: 10.5593/sgem2015/b51/s20.110 

Zvyaginceva A. V., Zav'yalova A. Yu. Analiz osnovnyh tehnologicheskih i inzhenerno-tehnicheskih meropriyatiy, napravlennyh na sokrashchenie pylegazovyh vybrosov pri massovyh vzryvah na kar'erah gorno-obogatitel'nogo kombinata. URL: https://updoc.site/download/5ad12b452ec12_pdf

K voprosu snizheniya vyhoda melkih frakciy pri vzryvnoy otboyke mineral'nogo syr'ya, a takzhe bureniya, raskhoda VV i seysmicheskogo ehffekta na otkrytyh gornyh rabotah / Shvyd'ko P. V., Mel'nik G. V., Bykov E. K. et. al. // Visnyk KDPU imeni Mykhaila Ostrohradskoho. 2007. Issue 5 (46). P. 94–97.

Rock Fragmentation by Blasting – a review / Roy M., Paswan R., Sarim Md. et. al. // Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels. 2016. Vol. 64, Issue 9. Р. 424–431.

Efremov E. I., Nikiforova V. A., Chebenko Yu. N. Vliyanie diametra skvazhiny na ploshchad' kontakta vzryvchatogo veshchestva s razrushaemoy porodoy i na vyhod melkih frakciy // Suchasni resursoenerhozberihaiuchi tekhnolohiyi hirnychoho vyrobnytstva. 2012. Issue 2 (10). P. 9–15.

Gaponenko I. A. Effektivnye sposoby podgotovki skvazhin k zaryazhaniyu i novaya konstrukciya zaryada vzryvchatyh veshchestv // Stalyi rozvytok promyslovosti ta suspilstva: mater. mizhnar. nauk.-tekhn. konf. Kryvyi Rih, 2013. P. 48–49.

Otsinka enerhetychnykh kharakterystyk vybukhu sverdlovynnykh zariadiv z povitrianym radialnym zazorom / Masiukevych O. M., Kucheruk L. V., Kaliuzhna V. V., Kaliuzhnyi S. L. // Visnyk ZhDTU. 2004. Issue 1 (28). P. 179–182.

Couvrat J.-F., Dernoncourt J.-R., Martareche F. ECOFRO, an eco comparison tool for methods of rock fragmentation // Rock Fragmentation by Blasting. 2012. P. 241–248. doi: 10.1201/b13759-31 

Tverda O. Ya., Vorobiov V. D. Obgruntuvannia ratsionalnykh rozmiriv i heometriyi merezhi sverdlovyn za faktorom propratsiuvannia pidoshvy ustupu dlia trishchynuvatykh skelnykh porid // Visnyk ZhDTU. 2015. Issue 3 (74). P. 140–148.

Muller B., Hausmann J., Niedzwiedz H. Control of rock fragmentation and muck pile geometry during production blasts (environmentally friendly blasting technique) // 10th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting. 2009. Р. 277–286.

Investigations into the influence of decking on rock fragmentation and ground vibrations by blasting in shallow benches of limestone quarries – A case study / Balamadeswaran P., Mishra A., Sen P., Ramesh S. // Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels. 2018. Vol. 66, Issue 1. Р. 39–47.

A holistic approach to Managing Blast Outcomes / Goswami T., Martin E., Rothery M., Genge D. // 11th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting. 2015. P. 645–653.

Rozhdestvenskiy B. L., Yanenko N. N. Sistemy kvazilineynyh uravneniy i ih prilozhenie k gazovoy dinamike. Moscow: Nauka, 1978. 687 p.

Golovko K. G., Lugovoy P. Z., Meysh V. F. Dinamika neodnorodnyh obolochek pri nestacionarnyh nagruzkah. Kyiv: Izd.-poligraf. centr «Kyiv. un-t», 2012. 541 p.

Fletcher K. Vychislitel'nye metody v dinamike zhidkostey. Vol. 2. Metody rascheta razlichnyh techeniy. Moscow: Mir, 1991. 552 p.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133743

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Copyright (c) 2018 Oksana Tverda, Leonid Plyatsuk, Mykola Repin, Kostiantyn Tkachuk

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061