DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.141013

Studying the emissions from enterprises in the bread­making industry in order to use them as additives to animal feed products

Melentii Zatserkliannyi, Viktor Gogunskii, Yury Semenyuk, Tatyana Stolevich, Yuriy Zheliba

Abstract


We have investigated the concentration, physical properties and chemical composition of dust formed in the equipment at enterprises in the bread-making industry, depending on the character of production and a place of its formation.

It was established that the dust concentration varies from 130 to 640 g/m3. The physical properties of dust are as follows: bulk density ‒ 350‒570 kg/m3, mineral substance ‒ 0.6‒7.8 %; variance at d=50 µm is from 3.8 to 18, and at d=5 μm, from 1.7 to 6.3. The chemical composition of dust, % per dry matter, is: starch ‒ (17‒75), protein ‒ (0.2‒18), pentosanes ‒ (2.0‒6.2), fat ‒ (0.2‒3.6), sugar ‒ (1.7‒58), cellulose ‒ (0.8‒48).

The results obtained indicate that the maximum values of dust concentrations are reached in the units of grain preparation for processing (equipment for treating grain surface at a preparatory unit of the mill, 640 g/m3). Minimal values are reached at the silo-bottom conveyors of grain elevator, 130 g/m3. Ash content varies from 0.6 % (flour dust in the mill's grinding unit rollers) to 7.8 % (grain dust in the silo-bottom conveyors of grain elevator).

Bulk density varies from 350 kg/m3 in the mixer at a feed plant to 570 kg/m3 in the silo-bottom conveyors of grain elevator.

The most disperse particles form in the mill's grinding unit rollers, and the least disperse ones are in the grain elevator's equipment.

The chemical composition of dust, % per dry matter, is: ‒ starch (17‒75), protein ‒ (0.2‒18), pentosanes ‒ (2.0‒6.2), fat ‒ (0.2‒3.6), sugar ‒ (1.7‒58), cellulose ‒ (0.8‒48).

Chemical composition represented by carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mineral substances, allows us to resolve the task on processing grain and flour dust.

The data obtained might prove useful when solving the issue of processing grain and flour dust. The grain and flour dust is a valuable secondary resource, easily reproduced, a cheap and readily available source of raw materials for animal feed additives after appropriate treatment.

Given the volume, physical properties and chemical composition of dust generated at enterprises of the bread-making industry, we have developed the scheme for processing it, as well as the liquid waste when applying the wet method of grain preparation for processing, into carbohydrate-protein feed additives in the form of a biomass for animal feed.

The scheme for processing waste, bran, and grain dust into feed granules is developed, in order to store them better and utilize during feed production.

The efficiency of processing and utilization of waste at an enterprise in the bread-making industry is represented by a set of integral criteria that characterize the quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process. The comprehensive integral technological process efficiency criterion makes it possible to identify reserves for improvement at particular enterprise. The integral criterion of the effectiveness of the technological process Кefficiency. should approach its maximum value (Кefficiency.→1). The lower its values for a given enterprise, the larger the reserves to improve the process

Keywords


bread-making industry; equipment; grain dust; physical properties of dust; chemical composition; recycling; scheme; feed additives; animal feed granules; criteria of efficiency

References


Vakhrusheva, K. (2016). Industrial Pollution: World War. How Countries Struggle with Pollution. Ecology and Law, 1 (61), 40–43.

Zhu, T., Melamed, M. L., Parrish, D., Gllardo Klenner, L., Lawrence, M., Konare, A., Liousse, C. (Eds.) (2012). WMO/IGAC Impacts of Megacities on Air Pollution and Climate. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 299.

Shtokman, E., Shilov, E., Novgorodsky, V., Skoryk, T., Amerhanov, R. A. (2017). Ventilation, air conditioning and air purification at food industry enterprises. Мoscow, 564.

Puzik, L., Puzik, V. (2013). Tekhnolohiya zberihannia i pererobky zerna. Kharkiv: KhNAU, 312.

Gogunsky, V., Rudenko, S., Uridnikova, I. (2011). Theory and practice of risk assessment of health from the influence of environmental factors. Safety of life and activity of man – education, science, practice, 170–175.

Yudaev, N. (2008). Elevators, warehouses, grain dryers. Sankt-Peterburg: GIORD, 128.

Merko, І. (2010). Technologies of flour and groats production. Odessa: Printing House, 472.

Klippel, A., Schmidt, M., Krause, U. (2015). Dustiness in workplace safety and explosion protection – Review and outlook. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 34, 22–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2015.01.011

Adamov, E. (2010). The results of studies of dust formation and dust collection during the reloading of bulk goods by grab cranes. Exploitation of Maritime Transport, 1 (59), 13–17.

Rudyka, E., Baturina, E., Semenikhin, O., Kalachev, A. (2009). Investigation of the process of dust trapping at grain processing enterprises. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 43–49.

Kliopova, I., Petraškien, V. (2009). Evaluation of Significant Environmental Aspects in Grain Processing. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 49 (3), 44–55.

Spankie, S., Cherrie, J. W. (2012). Exposure to Grain Dust in Great Britain. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 56 (1), 25–36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mer084

Yehorov, B. V. (2011). Tekhnolohiya vyrobnytstva kombikormiv. Odessa: Drukarskyi dim, 448.

Kirkeleit, J., Hollund, B. E., Riise, T., Eduard, W., Bråtveit, M., Storaas, T. (2016). Bakers' exposure to flour dust. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14 (2), 81–91. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1225156

Marchand, G., Gardette, M., Nguyen, K., Amano, V., Neesham-Grenon, E., Debia, M. (2017). Assessment of Workers’ Exposure to Grain Dust and Bioaerosols During the Loading of Vessels’ Hold: An Example at a Port in the Province of Québec. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 61 (7), 836–843. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx045

Usmanova, R. R., Zaikov, G. E. (2014). Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice. Apple Academic Press, 384. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/b17729

Karpova, G. V., Zaynutdinov, R. R. (2008). Processing of aspiration waste of grain-processing enterprises into fodder yeast. Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials, 7, 76–79.


GOST Style Citations


Vakhrusheva K. Industrial Pollution: World War. How Countries Struggle with Pollution // Ecology and Law. 2016. Issue 1 (61). P. 40–43.

WMO/IGAC Impacts of Megacities on Air Pollution and Climate / T. Zhu, M. L. Melamed, D. Parrish, L. Gllardo Klenner, M. Lawrence, A. Konare, C. Liousse (Eds.). World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012. 299 р.

Ventilation, air conditioning and air purification at food industry enterprises / Shtokman E., Shilov E., Novgorodsky V., Skoryk T., Amerhanov R. A. Мoscow, 2017. 564 p.

Puzik L., Puzik V. Tekhnolohiya zberihannia i pererobky zerna. Kharkiv: KhNAU, 2013. 312 p.

Gogunsky V., Rudenko S., Uridnikova I. Theory and practice of risk assessment of health from the influence of environmental factors // Safety of life and activity of man – education, science, practice. 2011. P. 170–175.

Yudaev N. Elevators, warehouses, grain dryers. Sankt-Peterburg: GIORD, 2008. 128 p.

Merko І. Technologies of flour and groats production. Odessa: Printing House, 2010. 472 p.

Klippel A., Schmidt M., Krause U. Dustiness in workplace safety and explosion protection – Review and outlook // Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2015. Vol. 34. P. 22–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2015.01.011 

Adamov E. The results of studies of dust formation and dust collection during the reloading of bulk goods by grab cranes // Exploitation of Maritime Transport. 2010. Issue 1 (59). P. 13–17.

Investigation of the process of dust trapping at grain processing enterprises / Rudyka E., Baturina E., Semenikhin O., Kalachev A. // Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2009. P. 43–49.

Kliopova I., Petraškien V. Evaluation of Significant Environmental Aspects in Grain Processing // Environmental Research, Engineering and Management. 2009. Vol. 49, Issue 3. Р. 44–55.

Spankie S., Cherrie J. W. Exposure to Grain Dust in Great Britain // The Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2012. Vol. 56, Issue 1. Р. 25–36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mer084 

Yehorov B. V. Tekhnolohiya vyrobnytstva kombikormiv. Odessa: Drukarskyi dim, 2011. 448 p.

Bakers' exposure to flour dust / Kirkeleit J., Hollund B. E., Riise T., Eduard W., Bråtveit M., Storaas T. // Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2016. Vol. 14, Issue 2. P. 81–91. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1225156 

Assessment of Workers’ Exposure to Grain Dust and Bioaerosols During the Loading of Vessels’ Hold: An Example at a Port in the Province of Québec / Marchand G., Gardette M., Nguyen K., Amano V., Neesham-Grenon E., Debia M. // Annals of Work Exposures and Health. 2017. Vol. 61, Issue 7. P. 836–843. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx045 

Usmanova R. R., Zaikov G. E. Clearing of Industrial Gas Emissions: Theory, Calculation, and Practice. Apple Academic Press, 2014. 384 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/b17729 

Karpova G. V., Zaynutdinov R. R. Processing of aspiration waste of grain-processing enterprises into fodder yeast // Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2008. Issue 7. P. 76–79.







Copyright (c) 2018 Melentii Zatserkliannyi, Viktor Gogunskii, Yury Semenyuk, Tatyana Stolevich, Yuriy Zheliba

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061