DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.157604

Detecting the influence of heat sources on material properties when producing aviation parts by a direct energy deposition method

Mikhail Gnatenko, Pavel Zhemanyuk, Igor Petryk, Sergey Sakhno, Sergey Chigileichik, Valery Naumik, Alexander Ovchinnikov, Maria Matkovskaya

Abstract


Quality of the material obtained by the method of direct energy deposition using three heat sources (plasma arc, electric welding arc and welding arc with cold metal transfer) was studied. AlMg5 alloy wire was used as the filler material.

The study was conducted to establish at what heat source the deposited material will have the highest physical and mechanical characteristics and performance. It was also necessary to assess quality, size and uniformity of distribution of the deposited layers since these indicators determine accuracy of the resulting product and make it possible to reduce machining allowance.

Influence of heat sources on formation of surface of deposited plates was revealed: the specimens obtained by the method of plasma surfacing had protrusion height of the deposited layers on the side surface up to 2 mm, the specimens obtained by the method of electric arc and CMT surfacing had protrusion height of 0.5 mm. The obtained data will enable determination of the minimum allowable machining allowance.

Analysis of chemical composition has shown that each heat source ensured chemical composition of the finished product corresponding to chemical composition of original material. Distribution of alloying elements was uniform among the deposited layers. However, the CMT process provided the most accurate distribution of alloying elements.

Physical and mechanical properties of the plates obtained by the direct growth method were approximately at the same level with the materials obtained using conventional methods of casting and pressing.

The specimens obtained by the method of plasma surfacing had the highest values of mechanical properties: σt=28 MPa; σ0.2=15 MPa; δ=30.4 % which can be explained by a more dispersed structure and a high level of fusion of the deposited layers.

The obtained data will make it possible to determine which heat source is more expedient to use in order to obtain properties necessary for a concrete technological process. They also make it possible to evaluate applicability of the method of direct growth using arc heat sources in mass production of parts

Keywords


additive technologies; plasma surfacing; direct growth; cold metal transfer

References


Additive Manufacturing of aluminum alloys (2018). Light Metal Age. Available at: https://www.lightmetalage.com/news/industry-news/3d-printing/article-additive-manufacturing-of-aluminum-alloys/

Gnatenko, M. O., Marchenko, Yu. A., Mitina, T. I. (2018). Ocenka vozmozhnosti izgotovleniya i remonta detaley metodom additivnyh tekhnologiy iz alyuminievyh splavov. Processy lit'ya, 4 (130).

Standardization Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing, Version 1.0 (2017). America Makes and ANSI Additive Manufacturing Standardization Collaborative (AMSC).

Wire-feed additive manufacturing might be the future of metal-based 3D printing. Available at: https://www.3ders.org/articles/20150531-wire-feed-additive-manufacturing-might-be-the-future-of-metal-based-3d-printing.html

Gu, J., Cong, B., Ding, J., Williams, S. W., Zhai, Y. (2014). Wire+Arc additive manufacturing of aluminium. Proc. 25th Int. Solid Freeform Fabrication Symp. University of Texas, 451–458.

Ding, J., Colegrove, P., Mehnen, J., Ganguly, S., Sequeira Almeida, P. M., Wang, F., Williams, S. (2011). Thermo-mechanical analysis of Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacturing process on large multi-layer parts. Computational Materials Science, 50 (12), 3315–3322. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.023

Ouyang, J. H., Wang, H., Kovacevic, R. (2002). Rapid prototyping of 5356-aluminum alloy based on variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding: process control and microstructure. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 17 (1), 103–124. doi: https://doi.org/10.1081/amp-120002801

Devletian, J. H., Wood, W. E. (1983). Factors affecting porosity in aluminum welds: a review. New York: Welding Research Council.

Cong, B., Ding, J., Williams, S. (2014). Effect of arc mode in cold metal transfer process on porosity of additively manufactured Al-6.3%Cu alloy. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 76 (9-12), 1593–1606. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-6346-x

Shitsyn, Yu. D., Belinin, D. S., Neulybin, S. D. (2015). Plasma surfacing of high-alloy steel 10Cr18Ni8Ti on low-alloy steel 09Mg2Si. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10 (20), 41103–41109.

GOST 4784-74. Alyuminiy i splavy alyuminievye deformiruemye. Marki (1974). Moscow.

DSTU EN ISO 18273:2018. Materialy svarochnye. Elektrody, provoloka i prutki dlya svarki alyuminiya i ego splavov. Klassifikaciya (EN ISO 18273:2015, IDT; ISO 18273:2015, IDT).


GOST Style Citations


Additive Manufacturing of aluminum alloys // Light Metal Age. 2018. URL: https://www.lightmetalage.com/news/industry-news/3d-printing/article-additive-manufacturing-of-aluminum-alloys/

Gnatenko M. O., Marchenko Yu. A., Mitina T. I. Ocenka vozmozhnosti izgotovleniya i remonta detaley metodom additivnyh tekhnologiy iz alyuminievyh splavov // Processy lit'ya. 2018. Issue 4 (130).

Standardization Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing, Version 1.0. America Makes and ANSI Additive Manufacturing Standardization Collaborative (AMSC), 2017.

Wire-feed additive manufacturing might be the future of metal-based 3D printing. URL: https://www.3ders.org/articles/20150531-wire-feed-additive-manufacturing-might-be-the-future-of-metal-based-3d-printing.html

Wire+Arc additive manufacturing of aluminium / Gu J., Cong B., Ding J., Williams S. W., Zhai Y. // Proc. 25th Int. Solid Freeform Fabrication Symp. University of Texas, 2014. P. 451–458.

Thermo-mechanical analysis of Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacturing process on large multi-layer parts / Ding J., Colegrove P., Mehnen J., Ganguly S., Sequeira Almeida P. M., Wang F., Williams S. // Computational Materials Science. 2011. Vol. 50, Issue 12. P. 3315–3322. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.023 

Ouyang J. H., Wang H., Kovacevic R. Rapid prototyping of 5356-aluminum alloy based on variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding: process control and microstructure // Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2002. Vol. 17, Issue 1. P. 103–124. doi: https://doi.org/10.1081/amp-120002801 

Devletian J. H., Wood W. E. Factors affecting porosity in aluminum welds: a review. New York: Welding Research Council, 1983.

Cong B., Ding J., Williams S. Effect of arc mode in cold metal transfer process on porosity of additively manufactured Al-6.3%Cu alloy // The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2014. Vol. 76, Issue 9-12. P. 1593–1606. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-6346-x 

Shitsyn Yu. D., Belinin D. S., Neulybin S. D. Plasma surfacing of high-alloy steel 10Cr18Ni8Ti on low-alloy steel 09Mg2Si // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Vol. 10, Issue 20. P. 41103–41109.

GOST 4784-74. Alyuminiy i splavy alyuminievye deformiruemye. Marki. Moscow, 1974.

DSTU EN ISO 18273:2018. Materialy svarochnye. Elektrody, provoloka i prutki dlya svarki alyuminiya i ego splavov. Klassifikaciya (EN ISO 18273:2015, IDT; ISO 18273:2015, IDT).






Copyright (c) 2019 Mikhail Gnatenko, Pavel Zhemanyuk, Igor Petryk, Sergey Sakhno, Sergey Chigileichik, Valery Naumik, Alexander Ovchinnikov, Maria Matkovskaya

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061