DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.160755

Studying the physical­chemical transformations at resource­saving reduction melting of chrome–nickel­containing metallurgical waste

Artem Petryshchev, Dmitry Milko, Viacheslav Borysov, Bohdan Tsymbal, Ihor Hevko, Svitlana Borysova, Andrii Semenchuk

Abstract


We have investigated the physicochemical characteristics of chromium-nickel-containing waste from the production of corrosion-resistant steels and a doped alloy obtained by reduction smelting. This is necessary to determine the parameters that reduce the losses of Ni and Cr during the processing of doped oxide raw materials and using the resulting dopant. It was determined that the alloy with the O/C ratio in the charge in the range of 1.09–1.78 had the γ-Fe and Fe3C phases with alloying elements as substitutional atoms. At O/C=1.78, the phase composition predominantly consisted of γ-Fe with a weak manifestation of Fe3C. A phased O/C change in charge of 1.33 and 1.09 resulted in an increase in the emergence of Fe3C on diffractograms. The microstructure of the chrome-nickel-containing corrosion-resistant steels scale mixture is disordered with the presence of particles of different sizes and shapes. The content of the alloying elements Ni and Cr was 7.65 % wt. and 14.26 % wt., respectively, at the oxygen content at the level of 29.70 % wt. The microstructure of the doped alloy with a different O/C ratio in the charge had a clear manifestation of several phases, characterized by differences in the content of the main alloying elements. The Ni content in the studied areas of different phases varied within 1.41–20.90 % wt., Cr ‒ 1.27–32.90 % wt. According to research, the most acceptable O/C ratio in the charge is 1.78. In this case, reduction was achieved with predominance in the phase composition of γ-Fe with a relatively weak manifestation of residual carbon as the carbide component. In other words, we have determined the indicators for the processing of chromium-nickel-containing industrial wastes and the production of a doped smelting product with a relatively low carbon content. This expands the possibilities of resource saving using the obtained alloy with the replacement of a certain proportion of standard alloying materials in the smelting of carbon-limited steel grades.


Keywords


corrosion-resistant steel scale; alloyed technogenic waste; reduction smelting; X-ray phase studies

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References


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Ryabchikov, I. V., Belov, B. F., Mizin, V. G. (2014). Reactions of metal oxides with carbon. Steel in Translation, 44 (5), 368–373. doi: https://doi.org/10.3103/s0967091214050118

Mechachti, S., Benchiheub, O., Serrai, S., Shalabi, M. (2013). Preparation of iron Powders by Reduction of Rolling Mill Scale. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4 (5), 1467–1472.

Shatokha, V. I., Gogenko, O. O., Kripak, S. M. (2011). Utilising of the oiled rolling mills scale in iron ore sintering process. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55 (4), 435–440. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.11.006

Liu, S., Wu, H. B., Yu, W., Wang, L. D., Cai, Z. X., Tang, D. (2013). Influence of hot-rolling parameters on the microstructure and corrosion-resistance of oxide scales. Cailiao Kexue yu Gongyi/Material Science and Technology, 21 (6), 84–90.

Hryhoriev, S., Petryshchev, A., Shyshkanova, G., Zaytseva, T., Frydman, O., Sergienko, O. et. al. (2017). Research into recycling of nickel­cobalt­containing metallurgical wastes by the ecologically­safe technique of hydrogen reduction. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (10 (90)), 45–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.114348

Hryhoriev, S., Petryshchev, A., Shyshkanova, G., Zaytseva, T., Frydman, O., Krupey, K. et. al. (2018). A study of environmentally friendly recycling of technogenic chromium and nickel containing waste by the method of solid phase extraction. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (10 (91)), 44–49. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.121615

Zhang, Y., Wei, W., Yang, X., Wei, F. (2013). Reduction of Fe and Ni in Fe-Ni-O systems. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy, 49 (1), 13–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/jmmb120208038z

Huang, D. H., Zhang, J. L., Lin, C. C., Mao, R. (2011). Production of ferro-nickel granules from nickel laterite ore/coal composite briquettes by direct reduction. Beijing Keji Daxue Xuebao, 33 (12), 1442–1447.

Wang, L., Lü, X., Liu, M., You, Z., Lü, X., Bai, C. (2018). Preparation of ferronickel from nickel laterite via coal-based reduction followed by magnetic separation. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, 25 (7), 744–751. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-018-1622-7

Pan, J., Zheng, G., Zhu, D., Zhou, X. (2013). Utilization of nickel slag using selective reduction followed by magnetic separation. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 23 (11), 3421–3427. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1003-6326(13)62883-6

Zhao, L., Wang, L., Chen, D., Zhao, H., Liu, Y., Qi, T. (2015). Behaviors of vanadium and chromium in coal-based direct reduction of high-chromium vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates followed by magnetic separation. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 25 (4), 1325–1333. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1003-6326(15)63731-1

Simonov, V. K., Grishin, A. M. (2013). Thermodynamic analysis and the mechanism of the solid-phase reduction of Cr2O3 with carbon: Part 1. Russian Metallurgy (Metally), 2013 (6), 425–429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/s0036029513060153

Simonov, V. K., Grishin, A. M. (2013). Thermodynamic analysis and the mechanism of the solid-phase reduction of Cr2O3 with carbon: Part 2. Russian Metallurgy (Metally), 2013 (6), 430–434. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/s0036029513060165


GOST Style Citations


Vojtov V. A., Tsymbal B. M. Study of Tribological Characteristics of Compatible Materials in Tribosystems of Extruders for Manufacturing Solid Fuel from Biomass // Journal of Friction and Wear. 2018. Vol. 39, Issue 6. P. 500–504. doi: https://doi.org/10.3103/s1068366618060168 

Ryabchikov I. V., Belov B. F., Mizin V. G. Reactions of metal oxides with carbon // Steel in Translation. 2014. Vol. 44, Issue 5. P. 368–373. doi: https://doi.org/10.3103/s0967091214050118 

Preparation of iron Powders by Reduction of Rolling Mill Scale / Mechachti S., Benchiheub O., Serrai S., Shalabi M. // International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2013. Vol. 4, Issue 5. P. 1467–1472.

Shatokha V. I., Gogenko O. O., Kripak S. M. Utilising of the oiled rolling mills scale in iron ore sintering process // Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2011. Vol. 55, Issue 4. P. 435–440. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.11.006 

Influence of hot-rolling parameters on the microstructure and corrosion-resistance of oxide scales / Liu S., Wu H. B., Yu W., Wang L. D., Cai Z. X., Tang D. // Cailiao Kexue yu Gongyi/Material Science and Technology. 2013. Vol. 21, Issue 6. P. 84–90.

Research into recycling of nickel­cobalt­containing metallurgical wastes by the ecologically­safe technique of hydrogen reduction / Hryhoriev S., Petryshchev A., Shyshkanova G., Zaytseva T., Frydman O., Sergienko O. et. al. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 6, Issue 10 (90). P. 45–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.114348 

A study of environmentally friendly recycling of technogenic chromium and nickel containing waste by the method of solid phase extraction / Hryhoriev S., Petryshchev A., Shyshkanova G., Zaytseva T., Frydman O., Krupey K. et. al. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 1, Issue 10 (91). P. 44–49. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.121615 

Reduction of Fe and Ni in Fe-Ni-O systems / Zhang Y., Wei W., Yang X., Wei F. // Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. 2013. Vol. 49, Issue 1. P. 13–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/jmmb120208038z 

Production of ferro-nickel granules from nickel laterite ore/coal composite briquettes by direct reduction / Huang D. H., Zhang J. L., Lin C. C., Mao R. // Beijing Keji Daxue Xuebao. 2011. Vol. 33, Issue 12. P. 1442–1447.

Preparation of ferronickel from nickel laterite via coal-based reduction followed by magnetic separation / Wang L., Lü X., Liu M., You Z., Lü X., Bai C. // International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials. 2018. Vol. 25, Issue 7. P. 744–751. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-018-1622-7 

Utilization of nickel slag using selective reduction followed by magnetic separation / Pan J., Zheng G., Zhu D., Zhou X. // Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2013. Vol. 23, Issue 11. P. 3421–3427. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1003-6326(13)62883-6 

Behaviors of vanadium and chromium in coal-based direct reduction of high-chromium vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates followed by magnetic separation / Zhao L., Wang L., Chen D., Zhao H., Liu Y., Qi T. // Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2015. Vol. 25, Issue 4. P. 1325–1333. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1003-6326(15)63731-1 

Simonov V. K., Grishin A. M. Thermodynamic analysis and the mechanism of the solid-phase reduction of Cr2O3 with carbon: Part 1 // Russian Metallurgy (Metally). 2013. Vol. 2013, Issue 6. P. 425–429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/s0036029513060153 

Simonov V. K., Grishin A. M. Thermodynamic analysis and the mechanism of the solid-phase reduction of Cr2O3 with carbon: Part 2 // Russian Metallurgy (Metally). 2013. Vol. 2013, Issue 6. P. 430–434. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/s0036029513060165 







Copyright (c) 2019 Artem Petryshchev, Dmitry Milko, Viacheslav Borysov, Bohdan Tsymbal, Ihor Hevko, Svitlana Borysova, Andrii Semenchuk

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061