DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.164071

Determining special features in the topography of paper with water marks at the micro­ and nanolevels

Tetiana Kyrychok, Tetiana Klymenko, Nadiia Talimonova, Katerina Svezhentsova

Abstract


We have studied the surface structure of tamper-proof paper with positive and negative watermarks at different scales ‒ from a micrometer to a nanometer level, by using the methods of contact profilometry and atomic force microscopy. Experimental research has confirmed that the structural parameters of the tamper-proof paper's surface differ at regions with and without watermarks.

The results of measurements by a contact profilometer have made it possible to trace a correlation between values of the profile's mean arithmetic deviation and the presence of watermarks. It was determined that the value for the profile's largest height does not depend on a measurement region, which could be related to the chaotic arrangement of fibers and particles of the filler in the paper bulk that protrude above the profile's line.

By analyzing the value of the profile's mean arithmetic deviation obtained by using a method of atomic-force microscopy, it was found that for regions with negative watermarks it is larger than that for regions with positive watermarks. The dependence of the profile's largest height on measurement region is not clearly observed. This may be due to that the size of the examined region (3,000×3,000 nm) covers only part of the pulp fibers.

Thus, the results of our analysis allow us to argue that both methods are suitable for estimating the characteristics of paper's surface, and determine the character of interaction between a given type of paper and printing inks during printing process. In particular, it has been established that the method of profilometry makes it possible to determine parameters of the paper's surface profile, formed in a certain way, while the atomic force microscopy method allows analysis of the morphology of its components, located at the surface (fibers, filler's particles, etc.). The availability of information on the structural properties of paper makes it possible to predict the quality of printing reproduction, specifically clearness of reproduction of thin guilloche lines on watermarks, which is relevant because it prevents flaws in printing products for special purposes.


Keywords


tamper-proof paper; roughness; contact profilometry; atomic force microscopy; surface structure of paper

References


ТАРРІ Standards–2012. TAPPI T 421. Qualitative (including optical microscopic) analysis of mineral filler and mineral coating of paper.

ISO 8791-4:2007. Paper and board. Determination of roughness/smoothness (air leak methods). Part 4: Print-surf method.

Habeger, C., Lyne, M. B., Mark, R., Borch, J. (Eds.) (2001). Handbook of physical testing of paper. Vol. 2. CRC Press, 560. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203910498

Security features integrated in banknote paper (2011). Billetaria. International Review on Cash Management, 9, 38–39.

Perron, M. (2010). Patenting of new banknote security features. Billetaria. International Review on Cash Management, 9, 22–23.

Kyrychok, P. O., Korostil, Yu. M., Shevchuk, A. V. (2008). Zakhyst tsinnykh paperiv ta dokumentiv suvoroho obliku. Kyiv: NTUU «KPI», 368.

Kyrychok, T., Shevchuk, A., Nesterenko, V., Kyrychok, P. (2014). Banknote Paper Deterioration Factors: Circulation Simulator Method. BioResources, 9 (1), 710–724. doi: https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.9.1.710-724

Kyrychok, T. Y., Kirilenko, V. M., Sukhina, E. G. (2013). Effect of wear on the electrophysical parameters of the banknotes. Proceedings of the universities. Problems of printing and publishing, 6, 3–12.

Kyrychok, T. (2014). Durability Banknote production. Kyiv: NTTU «KPI», 308.

Kyrychok, Т., Havenko, S., Kyrychok, P., Sukhina, Y., Kazhmuratov, Z. (2016). Badanie elektrofizycznych właściwości papier u banknotowego i banknotów. Przegląd papierniczy, 1 (1), 52–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.15199/54.2016.1.2

Ionov, V. (2012). The method of expert evaluation in banknote quality assessment. Proceedings of 2nd Stochastic modeling techniques and data analysis Int. Conf. Chania, 315–324.

Kyrychok, T. Yu., Talimonova, N. L., Zaritska, V. I., Denysiuk, A. I. (2012). Modeliuvannia pronyknennia farby v papir z vodianymy znakamy pid chas ofsetnoho druku. Naukovi visti Natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu Ukrainy "Kyivskyi politekhnichnyi instytut", 5, 135–139.

Kyrychok, Т., Klymenko, Т., Malkush, N. (2012). Badanie szorstkosci powierzchni papierow ze znakami wodnynmi. The Investigation of Roughness for Paper with Watermarks. Przegland papierniczy, 414–417.

Medyak, D. M., Maslakova, I. A., Kulak, I. I. (2011). Fraktal'naya geometriya struktury poverhnosti bumagi s vodyanymi znakami. Trudy BGTU, 9, 51–56.

González, I., Alcalà, M., Chinga-Carrasco, G., Vilaseca, F., Boufi, S., Mutjé, P. (2014). From paper to nanopaper: evolution of mechanical and physical properties. Cellulose, 21 (4), 2599–2609. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0341-0

Zhukovb, M. (2014). Structure control for different types of paper by atomic force microscopy. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik informacionnyh tekhnologiy, mekhaniki i optiki, 1 (89), 44–49.

Kirsankin, A. A., Mikhaleva, M. G., Nikol'skii, S. N., Musokhranova, A. V., Stovbun, S. V. (2016). Direct method of quality control surface coated types of paper. Chemistry of Plant Raw Material, 4, 159–163. doi: https://doi.org/10.14258/jcprm.2016041415

Chinga-Carrasco, G. (2012). Complementary microscopy techniques for surface characterisation of uncoated and mineral pigment coated paper. Current Microscopy Contributions to Advances in Science and Technology, 1448–1455.

Jurič, I., Ranđelović, D., Karlović, I., Tomić, I. (2014). Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle. Journal of Graphic Engineering and Design, 5 (1), 17–23.

Ying, L., Beihai, H. (2011). Characterization of ink pigment penetration and distribution related to surface topography of paper using confocal laser scanning microscopy. BioResources, 6 (3), 2690–2702.

Maydanyuk, S. V., Plyvak, А. А., Bekmuradov, R. А. (2007). The module for measurement of shaped structures. Visnyk ZhDTU, 2 (41), 15–18.

Liashenko, M. Ya., Holovan, M. S. (1996). Chyselni metody. Kyiv, 285.

Kormen, T., Leyzerson, Ch., Rivest, R., Shtayn, R.; Krasikov, I. V. (Ed.) (2005). Algoritmy: postroenie i analiz. Moscow: «Vil'yams», 1296.

Filonov, A. S., Yaminskiy, I. V. (2008). Polniy programmniy paket upravleniya i obrabotki dannyh dlya skaniruyu shchey zondovoy mikroskopii FemtoSkan Onlayn. Moscow: Centr perspektivnyh tekhnologiy.


GOST Style Citations


ТАРРІ Standards–2012. TAPPI T 421. Qualitative (including optical microscopic) analysis of mineral filler and mineral coating of paper.

ISO 8791-4:2007. Paper and board. Determination of roughness/smoothness (air leak methods). Part 4: Print-surf method.

Handbook of physical testing of paper. Vol. 2 / C. Habeger, M. B. Lyne, R. Mark, J. Borch (Eds.). CRC Press, 2001. 560 р. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203910498 

Security features integrated in banknote paper // Billetaria. International Review on Cash Management. 2011. Issue 9. P. 38–39.

Perron M. Patenting of new banknote security features // Billetaria. International Review on Cash Management. 2010. Issue 9. P. 22–23.

Kyrychok P. O., Korostil Yu. M., Shevchuk A. V. Zakhyst tsinnykh paperiv ta dokumentiv suvoroho obliku. Kyiv: NTUU «KPI», 2008. 368 p.

Banknote Paper Deterioration Factors: Circulation Simulator Method / Kyrychok T., Shevchuk A., Nesterenko V., Kyrychok P. // BioResources. 2014. Vol. 9, Issue 1. Р. 710–724. doi: https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.9.1.710-724 

Kyrychok T. Y., Kirilenko V. M., Sukhina E. G. Effect of wear on the electrophysical parameters of the banknotes // Proceedings of the universities. Problems of printing and publishing. 2013. Issue 6. P. 3–12.

Kyrychok T. Durability Banknote production: monograph. Kyiv: NTTU «KPI», 2014. 308 p.

Badanie elektrofizycznych właściwości papier u banknotowego i banknotów / Kyrychok Т., Havenko S., Kyrychok P., Sukhina Y., Kazhmuratov Z. // Przegląd papierniczy. 2016. Vol. 1, Issue 1. Р. 52–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.15199/54.2016.1.2 

Ionov V. The method of expert evaluation in banknote quality assessment // Proceedings of 2nd Stochastic modeling techniques and data analysis Int. Conf. Chania, 2012. P. 315–324.

Modeliuvannia pronyknennia farby v papir z vodianymy znakamy pid chas ofsetnoho druku / Kyrychok T. Yu., Talimonova N. L., Zaritska V. I., Denysiuk A. I. // Naukovi visti Natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu Ukrainy "Kyivskyi politekhnichnyi instytut". 2012. Issue 5. P. 135–139.

Kyrychok Т., Klymenko Т., Malkush N. Badanie szorstkosci powierzchni papierow ze znakami wodnynmi. The Investigation of Roughness for Paper with Watermarks // Przegland papierniczy. 2012. P. 414–417.

Medyak D. M., Maslakova I. A., Kulak I. I. Fraktal'naya geometriya struktury poverhnosti bumagi s vodyanymi znakami // Trudy BGTU. 2011. Issue 9. P. 51–56.

From paper to nanopaper: evolution of mechanical and physical properties / González I., Alcalà M., Chinga-Carrasco G., Vilaseca F., Boufi S., Mutjé P. // Cellulose. 2014. Vol. 21, Issue 4. P. 2599–2609. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0341-0 

Zhukovb M. Structure control for different types of paper by atomic force microscopy // Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik informacionnyh tekhnologiy, mekhaniki i optiki. 2014. Issue 1 (89). P. 44–49.

Direct method of quality control surface coated types of paper / Kirsankin A. A., Mikhaleva M. G., Nikol'skii S. N., Musokhranova A. V., Stovbun S. V. // Chemistry of Plant Raw Material. 2016. Issue 4. P. 159–163. doi: https://doi.org/10.14258/jcprm.2016041415 

Chinga-Carrasco G. Complementary microscopy techniques for surface characterisation of uncoated and mineral pigment coated paper // Current Microscopy Contributions to Advances in Science and Technology. 2012. Р. 1448–1455.

Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle / Jurič I., Ranđelović D., Karlović I., Tomić I. // Journal of Graphic Engineering and Design. 2014. Vol. 5, Issue 1. P. 17–23.

Ying L., Beihai H. Characterization of ink pigment penetration and distribution related to surface topography of paper using confocal laser scanning microscopy // BioResources. 2011. Vol. 6, Issue 3. P. 2690–2702.

Maydanyuk S. V., Plyvak А. А., Bekmuradov R. А. The module for measurement of shaped structures // Visnyk ZhDTU. 2007. Issue 2 (41). P. 15–18.

Liashenko M. Ya., Holovan M. S. Chyselni metody. Kyiv, 1996. 285 p.

Algoritmy: postroenie i analiz / Kormen T., Leyzerson Ch., Rivest R., Shtayn R.; I. V. Krasikov (Ed.). 2-e izd. Moscow: «Vil'yams», 2005. 1296 p.

Filonov A. S., Yaminskiy I. V. Polniy programmniy paket upravleniya i obrabotki dannyh dlya skaniruyu shchey zondovoy mikroskopii FemtoSkan Onlayn. Moscow: Centr perspektivnyh tekhnologiy, 2008.







Copyright (c) 2019 Tetiana Kyrychok, Tetiana Klymenko, Nadiia Talimonova, Katerina Svezhentsova

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061