Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet
<p><span lang="EN-US">Terminology used in the title of the "Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies" - "enterprise technologies" should be read as "industrial technologies". <strong>"Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies"</strong> publishes all those best ideas from the science, which can be introduced in the industry. Since, obtaining the high-quality, competitive industrial products is based on introducing high technologies from various independent spheres of scientific researches, but united by a common end result - a finished high-technology product. Among these scientific spheres, there are engineering, power engineering and energy saving, technologies of inorganic and organic substances and materials science, information technologies and control systems. Publishing scientific papers in these directions are the main development "vectors" of the "Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies". Since, these are those directions of scientific researches, the results of which can be directly used in modern industrial production: space and aircraft industry, instrument-making industry, mechanical engineering, power engineering, chemical industry and metallurgy.</span></p><p><span lang="EN-US">Therefore, the scientists, associated with modern production, have the opportunity to participate in technology transfer to industry, publishing the results of their applied scientific researches. Industrialists, in turn, can draw scientific and practical information from the journal - each in their direction:</span></p><ul><li>specialists in management and computer science - from volumes "Applied Information Technologies and Control Systems", "Mathematics and Cybernetics - Applied Aspects";</li><li>mechanical and design engineers - from the volume "Applied Mechanics";</li><li>production engineers - from volumes "Mechanical Engineering Technology", "Applied Physics", " Materials Science", "Technology of organic and inorganic substances and the Ecology";</li><li>production and power engineers - from the volume "Energy-saving technology and equipment".</li></ul><p><span lang="EN-US">The goal of the journal is to eliminate the gap, which occurs between the rapidly emerging new scientific knowledge and their introduction in the industry, which requires much more time. Industrial enterprises are active subscribers to the "Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies", and production engineers check the practical value of those scientific and technological ideas, which are recommended for implementation by scientists-authors of the ''Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies".</span></p><p><span lang="EN-US">The objective of the journal in achieving the goal is forming a "scientific component" of modern technologies transfer from science to industry. Therefore, in the papers, published in the journal, the emphasis is placed on both scientific novelty, and practical value.</span></p>PRIVAT COMPANY "TECHNOLOGY CENTER"en-USEastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies1729-3774<p>Our journal abides by the CREATIVE COMMONS copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.</p><p>Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:</p><p>1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.</p><p> 2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.</p>Prediction of the electrical resistance of multilayer carbon fiber composites
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/169627
<p>The issues of calculation of electrical phenomena in multilayer carbon fiber composite materials are considered. The method for assessing the reliability of composite material models for modeling electrical phenomena in composite structures is proposed. The method is based on the comparison of the calculated and experimental values of the electrical resistance of material specimens with certain lay-up sequences of the layers. Experimental determination of the electrical resistance of specimens of single-layer and multilayer composites based on two types of carbon fiber reinforcing materials is carried out. The calculation of resistance of the composites on the basis of these materials using the homogeneous model, as well as the layered model of composite material implemented by the finite element method was carried out. The initial data for modeling in the form of the coefficients of the electrical conductivity of the layers were obtained from the experimental results. The comparison of the calculation results using the homogeneous and layered models with the experimental results was carried out. On the basis of the obtained numerical results, as well as distribution analysis of electric potential in the models of the specimens, the application areas of the models were evaluated. According to the results of the analysis, the homogeneous model gives acceptable results with an accuracy of 12 % for materials that have an alternation of layers with different reinforcement angles. For the material where the layers with one reinforcement angle form clusters, the homogeneous model gave an error exceeding 50 %. In all cases considered, the layered model of the material provides high accuracy of modeling with an error less than 10 %. Based on the analysis, practical recommendations are given for modeling electrical phenomena in composite structures.</p>Vadym StavychenkoSvitlana PurhinaPavlo ShestakovMaryna ShevtsovaLina Smovziuk2019-06-302019-06-30312 (99)465410.15587/1729-4061.2019.169627Identification of energy efficiency of ore grinding and the liner wear by a threephase motion of balls in a mill
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/167046
<p>We have analytically derived an equation that relates the technological parameters of a ball mill, grinding material, to the parameters of a rod primary converter of energy efficiency of ore grinding. By using a method of applying a basic rod primary converter with a large cross-sectional area, at the side end of which large pieces of ore are destroyed at balls impacts, and an additional rod converter with identical parameters and a smaller cross-sectional area, which interacts only with balls, we have achieved invariance in determining the energy efficiency of ore grinding by a ball mill to a change in the motion speed of grinding bodies. We have analytically derived a mathematical model of energy-saving ore grinding by a ball mill with a three-phase motion of grinding bodies, invariant to a change in the length of rods during wear. The model can estimate the energy efficiency of grinding larger pieces of ore based on the resulting volume of crushed large-lump material. The mathematical model includes such constants as the cross-sectional areas of rod primary converters, the initial length of rod primary converters, the length of a basic section of strain gauges arrangement, the value for Young's modulus of the primary converters' material, as well as the changing constants that are defined by the ground material. In addition, the dependence has been derived analytically for determining the length of a main rod primary converter, based on which one can estimate the height of a liner, which wears out in the course of operation.</p><p>We have devised a functional circuit for the automated control system of energy efficiency of ore grinding by a ball mill that makes it possible to obtain estimation parameters using modern microprocessor tools. According to the devised circuit, one can build algorithms for determining the volume of ore to be crushed, as well as the thickness of a liner in a ball mill, which open up an avenue for developing software products.</p><p>Computer simulation has proven the possibility of applying the proposed method in order to estimate energy efficiency of ore grinding by a ball mill with a three-phase ball motion. We have established high sensitivity of the proposed approach to a deviation in energy efficiency of ore grinding from the best value. A possibility to estimate the parameter with a relative error of ±2.5 % has been confirmed.</p>Vasyl KondratetsAnatolii MatsuiVolodymyr YatsunMihail Lichuk2019-06-282019-06-28312 (99)212810.15587/1729-4061.2019.167046Determining the composition of burned gas using the method of constraints as a problem of model interpretation
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/169219
<p>This paper proposes a method for solving the problem on determining the unknown composition of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel during its combustion in real time. The problem had been defined as the inverse, ill-posed problem. A technique for measuring technological parameters makes it possible to specify it as a complex interpretation problem.</p><p>To solve it, a "library" method has been selected (selection), which is the most universal one. To implement it, a method has been constructed to compile a library in the form of a working three-dimensional array. The source data for each solution to a direct problem in the generated array are represented in the form of a single number. To this end, a position principle for recording decimal numbers has been applied.</p><p>Compiling a working array employed a method for comparing the excess factor of an oxidizer and the ratio of volumetric consumption of an oxidizer and fuel. This has made it possible to apply the results from solving a direct problem on determining the temperature of combustion products in order to solve the inverse problem on determining this composition based on the measured temperature.</p><p>A method has been devised for finding a solution among the elements of the working array based on the results from technological measurements of temperature of the combustion products of the burnt fuel and the ratio of the volumetric consumption of an oxidizer and fuel.</p><p>The work shows the absence of errors introduced to the solution by an algorithm of the proposed method. When modeling precise technological measurements, errors are due only to the sampling of source data while solving a direct problem. The influence of measuring the technological parameters on accuracy in determining the composition of fuel has been defined. It does not exceed the magnitude that is permissible for engineering calculations.</p><p>The proposed calculation method could make it possible to use under a managed mode, in energy and in the chemical industry, a large amount of hydrocarbon fuel gases that are currently considered waste. Their energy equivalent is comparable with the energy needs by the African continent.</p>Olexander BrunetkinValentin DavydovOleksandr ButenkoGanna LysiukAndrii Bondarenko2019-06-282019-06-28312 (99)223010.15587/1729-4061.2019.169219Effect of the integrated treatment on the manufacturing of printing cylinders
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171808
<p>We have developed a comprehensive technology to strengthen printing cylinders by forming a regular microrelief at the surface followed by chromium-plating.</p><p>Our research into the influence of comprehensive machining of a printing cylinder on the quality of printed products has established the mechanism for obtaining high quality parameters for the working surface of printing cylinders. Application of vibratory tool with a radius of R=2 mm, at effort P=550 N, the surface roughness amounted to the arithmetic mean deviation Ra 0.63 µm, which is 7.6 times lower than that without applying the surface-plastic deformation. A comprehensive machining of a printing cylinder includes a combination of the vibration knurling with the formation of the all-new regular microrelief followed by chromium-plating. Vibration knurling was performed at a tool indentation effort of 50‒600 N; a spindle rotation frequency of 25‒2,000 rpm; a deformative tool eccentricity of 0.2‒1.0 mm; a deformative tool frequency of oscillations of 1,000‒2,000 double step per minutes; a deformative tool feed of 0.08‒12.5 mm/rev. The chromium-plating involved the electrolyte CrO<sub>3</sub>≈290 g/l and H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>≈3 g/l; the electrolyte temperature was 57 °C; duration of chromium was 20 min; a current density was 80 A/dm2, time activation was 20 s. As a result of this, it became possible to obtain the developed surface of the cylinder with high operational characteristics. Our experimental research has confirmed that the machining modes significantly change surface roughness, hardness, and microhardness. This reinforces the surface strengthening of the printing cylinder. In particular, it was found that the integrated technology contributed to a 1.2‒1.6-time increase in hardness compared to the base metal hardness, and a 2.7‒3.3-time increase compared with chromium-plated surface. That makes it possible to argue on that the revealed formation mechanism matches the predefined properties.</p><p>Thus, there is reason to assert that it is possible to prolong the service life of printing cylinders, to ensure stable operation of the equipment, to improve the quality of printed products owing to the application of the integrated technology followed by chromium-plating.</p>Svetlana ZyhuliaOksana Barauskiene2019-06-272019-06-27312 (99)222810.15587/1729-4061.2019.171808Exploring the process to obtain a composite based on Cr2O3–AlN using a method of hot pressing
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171805
<p>We have established the influence of heating rate of 150, 350 and 600 °C/min, pressure of 8 and 18 MPa, on the compaction process of the reaction mixture Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>–15AlN<sub>nano</sub>, the hardness and crack resistance of the dense material. The intensity of compacting the charge Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>–15AlN<sub>nano</sub> depends on the pressure magnitude and the rate of heating. A pressure of 18 MPa ensures the complete compaction of the mixture regardless of the specified heating rate while a pressure of 8 MPa provides for the complete compaction of the material only at the rate of heating of 600 °C/min. For the heating rate of 600 °C/min, compaction curves of the mixture at pressures 8 and 18 MPa are similar in shape. It was established that at a heating rate of 600 °C/min the compaction process of the mixture, in addition to pressure, is additionally activated by the effect of exothermic reaction among its components. Increasing the rate of heating from 150 to 600 °C makes it possible to improve the hardness and crack resistance of the dense material by, respectively, 1.0 GPa and 1.5MPa∙m<sup>1/2</sup>. It was revealed that the structure of the dense material, newly formed during HP(Hot pressing) of the mixture Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>–15AlN<sub>nano,</sub> is of the dispersed-strengthened type: the matrix phase from a solid solution of variable composition from the composition (Cr<sub>1-x</sub>–Al<sub>x</sub>)<sub>2</sub>О<sub>3</sub> (0<x<0.4) and the dispersed, stochastically distributed within it, Cr<sub>2</sub>N inclusions the size of up to 2 µm that are alloyed with Al to 1.8 %. We have identified separate large inclusions the size of 10–40 μm of the structure, similar to the basic structure, but with the matrix phase of solid solution of the composition (Cr<sub>1-x</sub>–Al<sub>x</sub>)<sub>2</sub>О<sub>3</sub> (0.5<x<0.9). The fracture toughness of the material, obtained in the course of research, is 1.5 times larger, while the hardness is 1.2 GPa less, than similar characteristics for the most common ceramics of the "mixed" type based on Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>–ТіС.</p>Nikolay ProkopivOleg KharchenkoEdwin GevorkyanYuriy Gutsalenko2019-06-272019-06-27312 (99)172110.15587/1729-4061.2019.171805Determining features of application of functional electrochemical coatings in technologies of surface treatment
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171787
<p>Approaches to the use of electrochemical coatings in surface treatment technologies are analyzed. It is shown that directed surface modification allows expanding the functional properties of the treated material, in particular, increasing the strength, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, catalytic activity.</p><p>The method for treating non-alloy steel and cast irons by forming thin-film coatings of ternary alloys of iron and cobalt with molybdenum and tungsten is proposed. It is shown that the incorporation of refractory metals up to 37 at. % into the surface layer leads to a change in the phase structure of the coating. This is found to provide an increase in wear resistance by 40 %, microhardness by 2.5–3.5 times, as well as a decrease in friction coefficient by 3–4 times in comparison with the substrate material. The resulting materials can be used for hardening and protection of surfaces in various industries.</p><p>To modify the surface of piston silumins, it is proposed to use the method of plasma electrolytic oxidizing with the formation of ceramic-like coatings. It is shown that in the galvanostatic mode, from alkaline electrolyte solutions containing manganese and cobalt salts, it is possible to obtain uniform, dense, highly adhesive to the base metal, oxide coatings, doped with catalytic components whose content varies within 25–35 at. %. It is shown that the morphology and phase structure of the surface layers changes with the incorporation of dopant metals. The formed coatings have a high degree of surface development, which is a prerequisite for enhancing their functional properties. The proposed approach is used to modify the surface of the KamAZ-740 piston. It is found that the use of ceramic-like coatings of the engine piston leads to a decrease in hourly fuel consumption and amount of toxic substances with exhaust gases, which makes them promising for use in in-cylinder catalysis.</p>Ann KarakurkchiMykola SakhnenkoMaryna Ved’Iryna YermolenkoSergey PavlenkoVadym YevsieievYaroslav PavlovVladislav Yemanov2019-06-272019-06-27312 (99)293810.15587/1729-4061.2019.171787Modeling the parallelism of empirical models of optimal complexity using a Petri net
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171632
<p>Many physical processes and phenomena in view of their complexity cannot be described analytically. In these cases, empirical modeling is applied. In this research, the method based on the genetic approach is used to construct empirical models of optimal complexity that have the form of a polynomial of assigned power. Implementation of the developed method requires a multiple solution of the system of linear algebraic equations. Solution of the system of linear algebraic equations is found by reducing the corresponding matrix to the upper diagonal form with unities on the main diagonal. Analysis of the algorithm showed that the procedure of reducing the matrix to the upper diagonal form has internal parallelism. Based on the created model of the computational process in the form of a Petri net, the strategy of construction of the parallel algorithm for solving the system of linear algebraic equations was developed. The essence of the strategy is that computations are performed on some parallel processors. One of them was assigned coordinating functions, and it was named master. Other processors – slaves are subordinated to the master. Division of computation volume is such that the number of rows of the matrix, which master operates is at least by unity more than the corresponding number of rows allocated to the servant. The effectiveness of the parallel algorithm for the proposed strategy was evaluated based of the criterion of the total number of arithmetic operations. The proposed strategy is an integral part of the process of synthesis of the empirical model of optimal complexity based on the genetic algorithms. Distribution of computational load between processors working in parallel (master and slaves) ensures the acceleration of the computational process by five times or more.</p>Mikhail GorbiychukOlga BilaTaras Humeniuk2019-06-262019-06-26312 (99)566810.15587/1729-4061.2019.171632Exploring a possibility to control the stressedstrained state of cylinder liners in diesel engines by the tribotechnology of alignment
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171619
<p>Our research into the formation of a functional copper-containing surface layer on parts of automobile engines by using an alignment tribotechnology has established a decrease in the wear of parts during their operation. It was found that the formed coating creates an elastic layer that reduces strains in a material of engine parts. Our experimental study of the coercive force of parts' working surfaces has confirmed a decrease in the accumulation of destructive stresses in the near-surface layers of a components' material. In turn, a comparative analysis of the obtained results by using a coercimetric method confirms that the proposed aligning tribotechnology leads to reduction of the stressed-strained state and makes it possible to improve wear resistance and enhance the technical condition of diesel engine cylinder liners: the magnitude of coercive force reduces by 7.5 %, while operating time increases by 16 %. In this case, at larger operating time: 254.8 thousand km against 220.5 thousand km, according to data on the coercive force (14.2…9.1) A/cm and (13.2…9.0) А/cm, it is almost in the same condition.</p><p>The functional surface layer forms when introducing a composite oil to the tribotechnology of cold alignment of an automobile powertrain. We have proposed and implemented a circuit to connect electric current to components at an engine's cylinder-piston group as a result of studying the developed tribotechnology of alignment. The features of this scheme are that the constant electric current is supplied by the plus polarity, through the brush-collector node, to the crankshaft, and by the minus polarity, through the clamping contact, to the crankcase block.</p><p>The research results suggest a possibility to control the internal strains and the subsequent magnitude of wear in a material of working heavily-loaded components of automobile powertrains provided they are serviced properly. The proposed tribotechnology of alignment could be of interest for both service departments at trucking companies and for car service stations.</p>Viktor AulinAndrii HrynkivSergii LysenkoAleksandr DykhaTaras ZamotaVolodymyr Dzyura2019-06-262019-06-26312 (99)61610.15587/1729-4061.2019.171619Studying additional measurement errors from control tools using an integral functional method
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171445
<p>Our research has established that under industrial conditions the correction to the result of current measurements when an influencing parameter deviates from the rated value is rarely introduced. In a general case, the procedure for determining an additional measurement error implies that the measured values for an influencing parameter are applied to determine the degree of its deviation while a correction to the current measurement result is calculated as the product of this degree by its rated value.</p><p>In a general case, a procedure for determining an additional measurement error includes two stages. At the first stage, the measured values for an influencing parameter are used to determine the degree of its deviation from the rated value. At the second stage, correction is calculated as the product of this degree by the rated value for an additional error.</p><p>Such a technique to calculate a correction is time consuming and insufficiently precise, as it does not take into consideration the non-linear dependence of the additional error on a change in the influencing parameter, as well as the current value for the output signal of control tool. To determine the actual value for an influencing parameter and the additional measurement error under industrial operation of control tools, an integral functional method has been proposed. The method implies determining the difference of areas under the nominal and actual acreage static characteristics, limited to a range of measurement. The difference of areas is a function of the output signal of a control tool, a measured parameter and a change in the influencing parameter. It has been shown that the proposed method makes it possible to calculate the actual values for a technological parameter based on its measured and influencing parameters only. We have established regularities between the actual value for a measured parameter, the current value for the output signal from a control tool, and the measured value for an influencing parameter. The proposed method is important and valuable in the operation of computer-integrated control systems of technological parameters, as it makes it possible to determine the actual values for a measured parameter based on relevant algorithms without calculating corrections.</p>Yosyf StentselOlga PorkuianKonstiantyn LitvinovTetiana Sotnikova2019-06-252019-06-25312 (99)364310.15587/1729-4061.2019.171445Improving control efficiency in buffering systems using anticipatory indicators for demand forecasting
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171260
<p>Optimization of the stock management process is associated with the search for a forecasting model, a method for generation of a forecasting time series, a model of logistic operation, determining a reasonable level of reserve stocks and establishing the optimization criterion.</p><p>Successful solution to the optimization problem in general can be achieved only if the whole complex of local management problems is successfully solved. In this case, the method of generation of a cointegrated time series of demand forecasting is the central element of the technology of optimal stocks management. This relates to the fact that probabilistic nature of demand is the main factor reducing efficiency of management in systems of this class.</p><p>It was shown that the proposed method for improving management efficiency can be used in any economic system due to the possibility of construction of a single logistic operation model.</p><p>The proposed approach is based on formation of a time series specifically designed to solve the problem of forecasting the demand in stocks buffering systems. Such a series contains both information on sales volumes and data related to consumer demand.</p><p>Since consumer activity is ahead of the process of physical consumption of products, it becomes possible to use anticipatory markers in forecasting problems.</p><p>The study of operational processes using a verified indicator of efficiency has confirmed the hypothesis of presence of anticipatory markers within the framework of the formed forecast time series.</p>It has been established that the maximum management efficiency can be achieved in the case of a lower construction accuracy of the forecast model. This is due to the fact that the logistic operation model takes into account the costs of movement of products and their valuation at the operation input and output.Igor LutsenkoLiudmyla MikhailovaHanna KolomitsArtem Kuzmenko2019-06-242019-06-24312 (99)142010.15587/1729-4061.2019.171260A comprehensive analysis of consumer properties of nutria velour hydrophobicized with alkenmalein-acrylsyntane composition
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171063
<p>A set of consumer properties of hydrophobicized nutria fur velour obtained with the use of alkenmalein-acrylsyntane composition has been studied. Components of this composition included alkenmalein polymer, polyacrylic polymer and synthetic tanner. The process of filling and hydrophobicizing nutria fur velour was carried out at pH of the working solution of 6.8‒7.0, temperature of 40‒43 °С during three hours and completed at a pH of 3.8‒4.0.</p><p>Hydrofobicized nutria fur velour was obtained from raw materials with low hair quality, heterogeneous structure in different topographical areas and low density but with satisfactory physical and mechanical properties of the skin tissue.</p><p>Influence of the component ratio of the filling and hydrophobicizing composition on the physicochemical properties of fur velour was established. Specifically, the following characteristics have been studied: total thermal resistance, dynamic water wetting, water drop absorption, wetting angle, wetting, vapor permeability, air permeability, etc.</p><p>Optimal component ratio of the alkenmalein-acrylsyntane composition has also been established which ensures formation of a modified nutria fur velour with a set of improved consumer properties compared with the sheepskin velour. In particular, reduction of the total thermal resistance and vapor permeability of the hydrophobicized nutria fur velour observed during hydroprocessing was less: 9.7 and 1.7 times, respectively, than that of the sheepskin velour. At the same time, aesthetic indicators of the nutria velour (coloristic design and quality of leather dressing were also higher (by 39‒41%) than those of the sheepskin velour.</p><p>The obtained results from hydrophobicizing fur velour with a set of required consumer properties indicate the possibility of expanding the range of products made from fur raw materials with poor-quality hair but satisfactory physical and mechanical indicators of skin tissue. Fur products manufactured from hydrofobicized nutria velour will be suitable for wearing under conditions of high humidity.</p>Anatoliy DanylkovychNataliia Khliebnikova2019-06-212019-06-21312 (99)313610.15587/1729-4061.2019.171063Studying the influence of production conditions on the content of operations in logistic systems of milk collection
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171052
<p>The algorithm of coordination of the content and time of operations execution in logistic systems of milk collection with manufacturing conditions was developed. The appropriateness of execution of eleven management operations ensuring coordination of collection-transport operations with daily volumes of arrival of raw milk material at its collection points was substantiated. The research was carried out based on the simulation of execution of collection-transport operations of various content, taking into consideration changing manufacturing conditions.</p><p>The prediction of the functional indicators in particular periods of the calendar year was performed based on simulation of operations execution in a logistic system of milk collection taking into account changing manufacturing conditions and possible options for the content of operations. It was substantiated that at an increase in the number of operations of milk collection, the quantitative values of the indicators of execution of these operations increase, while the quantitative values of the indicators of execution of transport operations decrease.</p><p>It was found that during the calendar year in a specified logistic system of milk collection, the content of collection and transportation operations and production conditions have a significant impact on their indicators. It was substantiated that the quantitative value of these indicators during the calendar year changes by 1.2…3 times. This is explained by a change in the volume of milk collection over a calendar year. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of daily coordination of the content of operations execution in an assigned logistic system of milk collection with production conditions.</p>Anatoliy TryhubaNataliia PavlikhaMykola RudynetsInna TryhubaVitaliy GrabovetsMykola SkalygaIryna TsymbaliukNataliia KhomiukValentyna Fedorchuk-Moroz2019-06-212019-06-21312 (99)506310.15587/1729-4061.2019.171052Influence of modification of the solid component on the properties of non-autoclaved aerated concrete
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/171012
<p>This paper reports results of research into the modification of a solid component in the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with a lime-carbonate additive that contains calcium carbonate (calcite), calcium hydroxide (portlandite) and the additive with a plasticizing and accelerating effect in order to improve its strength. Based on an analysis of the scientific literature, it has been suggested that the properties of cellular concretes are defined by the character of a solid component. The object of research that we selected was the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with a density of 500 kg/m<sup>3</sup>. The list of raw materials and their characteristics is provided. The aerated concrete was molded at a fixed water demand corresponding to the spread of a mixture of 220 mm by a Suttard viscometer. In the course of experimental study we applied both standard and original test methods (mathematical-statistical methods, x-ray phase analysis, determining the equipotential field of the surface of samples of aerated concrete).</p><p>We have obtained the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with a modified solid component, which has a maximum compressive strength of 3.53 MPa corresponding to concrete of class C2 in line with current standard. The high strength is explained, based on data from an X-ray phase analysis, by the presence of crystalline phases, which are represented by stable new structures in the form of calcium carbonate and its modifications: vaterite ‒ μ-form of СaСO<sub>3</sub>, aragonite ‒ metastable form of СaСO<sub>3 </sub>and tobermorite gel.</p><p> Based on the data obtained, we have constructed experimental-statistical models of the examined properties. A specific relationship has been established between the strength of non-autoclaved aerated concrete and the equipotential field strength. The research results have been implemented industrially for manufacturing articles from non-autoclaved aerated concrete, which are not inferior, in terms of strength, to its autoclaved analogs.</p>Eugene KrylovVolodymyr MartynovMaksym MykolaietsOlena MartynovaOleksandr Vietokh2019-06-212019-06-21312 (99)535910.15587/1729-4061.2019.171012Examining a mathematical apparatus of Z-approximation of functions for the construction of an adaptive algorithm
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170824
<p>The result of this research is the proposed to mathematical apparatus and a procedure for constructing adaptive algorithm based on Z-approximation of functions. A given study is required to improve approaches to constructing algorithms that change their performance in response to changes in input information. This, in turn, significantly improves results in solving the problems that can be implemented using such an algorithm. For example, solving nonlinear problems, description of complex surfaces, search for information.</p><p>It has been shown that the solutions derived in the current study are in agreement with the application of the same algorithms for separate groups of functions used for approximation. These functions are used when constructing a direction to search for and provide an opportunity to build a model of error in Z-approximation using the initial or final approximations.</p><p>The definition of <em>Z<sub>m</sub></em>-approximation has been given as the approximation with a multiple interval reduction that simplifies recurrent formulae and is a feature of the presented approach. The proposed methodology and the basic algorithm make it possible to directly determine a series of common and hyperbolic functions using Z<sub>m</sub>-approximations and parallel computing. Based on the research results, an adaptive algorithm has been presented to calculate arctg <em>x</em> as a function inverse to tg <em>x</em>.</p><p>The above can be used when constructing an adaptive search algorithm in the arrays of unstructured or poorly structured information. Such a search is employed for books and textbooks, uploaded to the Internet in formats jpeg, pdf, or as fragments of the specified formats. In this case, based on the adaptive algorithm, a special model is constructed, which can be implemented according to several variants with a change in direction.</p>Olha KryazhychOleksandr Kovalenko2019-06-202019-06-20312 (99)61310.15587/1729-4061.2019.170824Construction of the expert system of geospatial analysis that employs scenarios for the automated data generation for a digital map
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170620
<p>This paper reports a study into the formalization of algorithms for solving problems, the generation of data for digital maps, as well as their implementation, through a set of simple operations that would be intuitively clear to a user who is not a specialist in the field of geoinformation technologies.</p><p>The approach that has been proposed is based on the construction of typical scenarios for model execution. Such scenarios are edited and adapted to the use of alternative electronic terrain maps. The result of scenario operation is a set of data ‒ layers of a digital map based on the input parameters for the model and the problem-solving algorithms, compiled by an expert. That makes it possible to construct libraries of typical scenarios, to store them centralized, as well as provide a common access to the scenarios, and to exchange data among applications. The result of running a scenario is that the user is provided with a possibility, without writing a programming code, to perform complex operations on processing geographical data and to simulate various processes at an electronic terrain map.</p><p>A geospatial analysis expert system has been developed, containing both the basic functions for geographical data processing and the high-level specialized models. A tree of decisions is built under a mode of visual construction of a problem-solving algorithm. We have implemented a conveyor of operations at which the data sources in an expert system derived when performing any operation are sent to the input of the next operation.</p><p>The results of this research could be used in simulation models of military activities, the tasks on photogrammetry in designing the optimal routes to fly over a territory, and as an additional tool for analysis of terrain in geoinformation systems. There is a possibility to expand the functionality of an expert system and to add new types of operations.</p><p>Thus, there is reason to assert that the process of automatic construction of data for digital maps requires specialized software and highly skilled users of geoinformation systems.</p>Gregory DrobahaVladimir LisitsinLyudmila SafoshkinaIhor MorozovAndrey Poberezhnyi2019-06-172019-06-17312 (99)435010.15587/1729-4061.2019.170620Research into the structural-mechanical properties of shortbread dough with oilseed meals
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170617
<p>This paper reports results of research into the application of oil-seed meal in the technology of flour-based confectionery products, specifically shortbread dough. We have investigated the structural-mechanical properties of shortbread dough with the addition of meal from the seeds of sesame, nut, and flax. It has been revealed that the indicators for elasticity, plasticity, and distensibility decrease compared to control sample by 4 % to 40 % when adding the meal of sesame, nut, and flax whose content ranges from 10 % to 30 %. Adding meals helps reduce the amount of gluten-free flour, which is a positive factor for making shortbread dough. Adding a composition of the specified meals at a ratio of 1.5:2:1.5 to shortbread dough increases the content of protein, fiber, macro- and micronutrients.</p><p>We have performed sensory quality assessment of shortbread dough semi-finished products made from oil-seed meals. The distensibility of control and experimental samples of shortbread dough semi-finished products has been calculated when replacing flour with a 10 %, 20 %, and 30 % of the composition. We have estimated the structural-mechanical characteristics of shortbread dough – deformation, relative plasticity, elasticity, distensibility. A diagram has been constructed for the deformation dynamics of shortbread dough that contains the model compositions of sesame, nut, and flax meals. The developed dough semi-finished products demonstrate the reduced indicators for plasticity, elasticity, distensibility, and deformation. It has been determined that the amount of gluten in shortbread dough decreases and the developed products show a greater fragility. It was found that the best sensory indicators were demonstrated by the sample with a 20 % content of meals in the flour.</p>We have experimentally confirmed the appropriateness of using oilseed meals, as well as devised a technology of flour confectionery products made from shortbread dough. It has demonstrated the increased protein content, by 2.4 times, selenium – by 41.2 times, fiber – by 4.7 times, calcium – by 18.4 times, magnesium – by 8.5 times, vitamin E – by 9.1 times. It was established that the developed functional products have improved food and biological value and fragilityMihailo KravchenkoVitalii MihailikDmytro YakymchukOksana DzyundzyaValentyna BurakOlena RomanenkoMykola ValkoEvgenia KorolenkoIryna OsypenkovaZoia Bondarchuk2019-06-172019-06-17312 (99)525910.15587/1729-4061.2019.170617Algorithmizing the methods of basis matrices in the study of balace intersectoral ecological and economic models
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170516
<p>Ecological-economic models (such as Leontiev-Ford) play a special role in solving the fundamental problems of long-term planning, taking into account the factor of environmental management. On their basis, the task of justifying the magnitude of the costs of environmental protection can be implemented, considering the socio-economic effect and their distribution in the territorial-industry context.</p><p>Based on the proposed balance model, typical generalizations («extensions») of the model are highlighted, which, in general, increase its dimension, but do not «fall out» of the linear class. In particular, the issues of analyzing the impact on changes in the volume of gross sectoral issues as a result of changes in structural industry proportions are studied, corresponding to changes in the technological structure of the functioning of the ecological-economic system in the sectoral context.</p><p>In order to solve the problem, it was developed to use the algorithms of basis matrix method, which are equipped with the technology for determining solutions of the system of matrix linear equations in accordance with the changes and generalize the model. At the same time, changes may be experienced by individual elements or a group of elements, one or a group of rows (columns), in blocks of matrix submatrices. The proposed algorithms are implemented for the case of changes in the matrix of constraints of the original system without recalculation (again).</p><p>We considered various variants of changes in the model and their influence on the new solution in case of «perturbation» in submatrices of the constraint matrix (group of elements forming a block) of the model. In particular, the variant with the «inclusion («exclusion») of new blocks of submatrices, that is an increase (or decrease) in the dimension of the original constraint matrix of mathematical model. Such models are provided by a linear system, in particular, a system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE).</p><p>Such an approach makes it possible to carry out directional changes in the model in order to achieve the desired proportions of the «useful» and «harmful» component in the production structure (as a solution to the problem).</p>Further development of the proposed theory makes it possible to proceed to the study of aggregation issues of the balance scheme «input-output», determining a specific corridor of permissible changes in order to achieve a target reference point for the volume of sectoral output.Volodymyr KudinAndriy OnyshchenkoIgor Onyshchenko2019-06-172019-06-17312 (99)455510.15587/1729-4061.2019.170516Assessment and prevention of the propagation of carbon monoxide over a working area at arc welding
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170510
<p>This paper reports a study of air environment at industrial premises where welding processes take place, with special attention paid to the formation of carbon monoxide (oxide) (CO) in the working environment in the process of manual arc welding. We have given the classification of basic harmful substances generated during welding and related processes in terms of the character of negative influence on the body of a welder. A mathematical model of the dynamics of change in the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air of a working area has been constructed, based on the amount of a harmful substance (m) in the air at premises at a time point, the intensity of its release into air, and the air exchange rate. A given mathematical model includes the propagation of carbon monoxide in the air, considering the air exchange between the overall volume of a premise and the local volumes of working zones.</p><p>There are not enough studies into the formation of carbon monoxide during welding processes, which is why examining this process is a priority.</p><p>Out experimental study has confirmed that the concentration of carbon monoxide outside the local volumes of local ventilation devices, that is in the air of working zones, remains constant (to 0.01 mg/m3) and does not exceed MPC (20 mg/m3). A failure or the absence of general ventilation leads to a rapid increase in the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in line with an exponential dependence (from 150 to 200 mg/m3 over 0.5‒0.6 hours) within a small closed workspace (1 m3), and can quickly spread throughout the entire premise.</p><p>However, a failure or the absence of general ventilation leads to a rapid increase in the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in line with an exponential dependence. This indicates that general ventilation is important, but it does not warrant safety for welders and other workers from gas poisoning. Therefore, the use of local ventilation must be ensured, as well as respiratory protection for all present when conducting welding processes. The derived mathematical models make it possible to assess risks during welders’ operations, to take into consideration CO emissions when calculating ventilation systems in working areas, to adjust the system that manages risks and labor safety.</p>Viacheslav BerezutskyiInna HondakNataliia BerezutskaVitaly DmitrikVeronika GorbenkoViktoriia Makarenko2019-06-172019-06-17312 (99)384910.15587/1729-4061.2019.170510Principles of the progress of reactions involving deep oxidation of isopropyl alcohol under conditions of aerosol nanocatalysis technology
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170488
<p>We studied the process of deep oxidation of isopropyl alcohol under conditions of aerosol nanocatalysis technology. The process was carried out in a reactor with a vibro-fluidized bed of a catalytic system, which consists of powder of a catalytically active Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> substance and dispersing material. We performed a study for the further development of an environmentally friendly catalytic heat generator, which would operate in accordance with principles of nanotechnology. It was noted that the main controlling factors in the applied method of aerosol nanocatalysis are temperature and mechanical-and-chemical activation of a catalyst. Mechanical-and-chemical activation makes it possible to adjust a mode of vibro-fluidization to obtain the required reaction products. We modernized the laboratory unit to study the processes by the method of aerosol nanocatalysis in a vibro-fluidized bed of a catalytic system for tasks of deep catalytic oxidation of isopropanol.</p><p>We carried out experimental studies into the effect of temperature on carbon monoxide content in oxidation gases, a degree of isopropanol transformation, and selectivity of the deep oxidation process. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve almost 100 % oxidation of isopropanol to СО<sub>2</sub> in aerosol of nanoparticles of iron oxide at temperatures below 630 °C. The mentioned fact makes it possible to use low-alloyed steels and to reduce equipment costs in future technology. The results of the study give a possibility to determine a direction of the further research to optimize parameters of the process of control of oxidation of isopropyl alcohol for its deep oxidation and to obtain free energy for further use. We performed comparison of some technical-and-economic parameters of the process being developed with the processes based on heterogeneous catalysis.</p>Tobenna Chimdiadi PhilipsSergey KudryavtsevIrene GlikinaDanil Korol2019-06-172019-06-17312 (99)374310.15587/1729-4061.2019.170488Development of the formulation for extruded products based on sugar corn grain and determining their quality indicators
http://journals.uran.ua/eejet/article/view/170461
<p class="par-indent">The formulations of extruded products based on sweet corn grain, bare-grain barley, carrot root crops, and licorice root and collagen hydrolysate have been developed.</p><p class="par-indent">We determined physical-and-chemical parameters (wettability, digestibility, and microstructure) of the extrudates obtained. The hardware-technological scheme of production and analyzed parameters of wettability and digestibility are presented. The study of the composition of micronutrients showed that consumption of 100 g of «Kukurudzyanka» sticks satisfies the human need for vitamins A and B<sub>6</sub> by 76.62 and 75.76 %, respectively, and consumption of 100 g of «Kukurudzyanka+» ‒ by 80 and 79.25 %. The data obtained showed that an increase in temperature and pH of a medium leads to an increase in the wetting ability of the developed sticks by 14...15 % on average.</p><p class="par-indent">In vitro studies established that the products developed have a rather high degree of digestibility, which reaches 85 %.</p><p class="par-indent">The obtained data from the study of quality indicators showed that the content of sanitary-indicative microorganisms corresponds to the sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for breakfast cereals at storage for 6 months at a temperature of (15±5) °C and humidity of 70...75 % in polypropylene packaging.</p><p class="par-indent">The developed products have a high content of protein substances, which is quite important for meeting the needs of a human body nowadays. Consumption of 100 g of sticks will provide a human body with essential amino acids by almost 24.1 % in general. The products presented in the study have a rather high content of basic micronutrients necessary for a human body, namely calcium, phosphorus and potassium.</p><p class="par-indent">We can recommend the developed extrudates for use by adolescents, children, for diets and consumption of other segments of the population.</p>Nadya DzyubaElena BunyakSergey SotsIrina Bilenka2019-06-172019-06-17312 (99)606910.15587/1729-4061.2019.170461