Modeling of soil reaction for seismic microzoning of building sites
Protection against destructive earthquakes requires the reliable data on the behavior of soil during earthquakes. The methods of determination of resonance properties of the upper part of the geological environment section for the building site for the needs of earthquake engineering are discussed in this paper. The development of scientific views on the linear and nonlinear models of the geological environment are analyzes. The theoretical background of linear equivalent linear and nonlinear modeling of soil response to seismic effects of earthquakes is considered. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods and the criteria for their applicability are analyzes. Also we presented and analyzed the results of a linear, equivalent linear and nonlinear modeling of the reaction of real ground layer under the actual construction site in Kiev on different levels of earthquakes.
Full Text:PDF (Русский)
Aleshin A. S., 2010. Seismic micro zoning especially important objects. Moscow: Svetoch Plus, 293 p. (in Russian).
Aptikaev F. F., 2001. Strong ground motion during earthquakes (seismic effects): Abstract of the thesis of the Dr. of phys. and math. sci. Moscow, 47 p. (in Russian).
Bat M., 1980. Spectral analysis in geophysics. Moscow: Nedra, 356 p. (in Russian).
Berzon I. S., Epinaneva A. M., Pariyskaya G. N., Starodubovskaya S. P., 1962. The dynamic characteristics of seismic waves in real soil grounds. Moscow: Publ. House of the USSR AS, 507 p. (in Russian).
Voznesenskiy E. A. Dynamic instability of soils. Moscow: Editorial URSS, 1999. 263 p. (in Russian).
Voznesenskiy E. A. Kushnareva E. S., Funikova V. V., 2014. Nature and the laws of stress wave attenuation in soils. Moscow: Flinta, 104 p. (in Russian).
Golitsyn B. B., 1912. On the dispersion and attenuation of seismic surface waves. Izvestiya Imperatorskoy AN. Ser. 6. 6(is. 2), 219—236 (in Russian).
Gusev A. A., 2002. On the basis of seismological earthquake-resistant building standards in Russia. Fizika Zemli (12), 56—70 (in Russian).
Dzhurik V. I., Serebrennikov S. P., Bryzhak E. V., Drennov A. F., Eskin A. Yu., 2012. Methodology of the original seismic signal forming for purposes of the seismic hazard zoning of urban agglomerations (on an example of Irkutsk). Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. Nauki o Zemle. 5(2), 96—110 (in Russian).
Zaalishvili V. B., 2009. Seismic micro zonation of urban territories, settlements and large building sites. Moscow: Nauka, 350 p. (in Russian).
Ishihara K., 2006. The behavior of soils during earthquakes. SPb: Sci. Prodaction Association «Georekonstruktsiya-Fundamentproect», 383 p. (in Russian).
Kondratiev O. K., 1986. Seismic wave in absorbing media. Moscow: Nedra, 176 p. (in Russian).
Krasnikov N. D., 1970. Dynamic properties of soils and methods of their determination. - Leningrad: Stroyizdat, 239 p. (in Russian).
National standard of Ukraine BSC-B-V.1.1-28:2010 «Protection from dangerous geological processes, operational harmful effects of fire. The scale of seismic intensity», 2010. Kiev: Building Ministry of Ukraine, 78 p. (in Ukrainian).
Pavlenko O. V., 2009. Seismic waves in the ground layers: a non-linear behavior of soil during strong earthquakes in recent years. Moscow: Nauchnyy Mir, 260 p. (in Russian).
Ratnikova L. I., 1984. Calculation of the vibrations on the free surface and in the interior of a horizontally layered absorbing soil. In: Seismic micro zoning. Moscow: Nauka, P. 116—121 (in Russian).
Ratnikova L. I. Levshin A. L., 1967. The calculation of the spectral characteristics of thin-layered media. Izvestiya AN SSSR. Fizika Zemli (3), 41—53 (in Russian).
Engineering surveys for building. Seismic micro zoning. Technical performance requirements. RSN 65-87, 1988. Moscow: Building Ministry of RSFSR, 14 p. (in Russian).
Saks M. V., Sinyuhina S. V., Aleshin A. S., 2003. Assessment of the impact of the inelasticity of soil on fluctuations characteristics during the earthquake. Fizika Zemli (8), 41—47 (in Russian).
Seismic micro zoning, 1984. Eds. O. V. Pavlov, V. A. Rogozhinф. Moscow: Nauka, 236 p. (in Russian).
Building in seismic regions of Ukraine: DBN V.1.1-12:2014, 2014. Kiev: Building Ministry of Ukraine, 84 p. (in Russian).
Building in seismic regions: BN&R II-7-81, 1987. Moscow: Building Ministry of RSFSR, 46 p. (in Russian).
Anilanandan K., Scott R. F. (eds.), 1996. Proc. Int. Conf. on the Verification of Numerical Procedures for the Analysis of Soil liquefaction Problems, Davis, California.
Archuleta R. J., 1998. Direct observations of nonlinearity in accelerograms. In: The Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion. Balkema, Rotterdam, P. 787—792.
Atkinson G. M., Boore D. M., 1997. Some Comparisons Between Recent Ground-Motion Relations. Seismol. Res. Lett. 68(l), 24—40.
Bardet J. P., Tobita T., 2001. NERA: A computer program for nonlinear earthquake site response analyses of layered Soil Deposits. Los Angeles: Univ. of Southern California. 44 p.
Boatwright J., Seekins L. C., Fumal Th. E., Lui H. P., Mueller C. S., 1992. Loma Prieta, California earthquake of October 17. 1989, strong ground motion and ground failure, Marina District: ground-motion amplification. In: Loma Prieta, California earthquake of October 17. 1989: Marina District. US Govemment Printing Office. Washington, D.C. P. F35—F49.
Boore D. M., Joyner W. B., Oliver A. A. III, Page R. A., 1980. Peak acceleration, velocity and displacement from strong-motion records. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 70, 305—321.
Campbell K. W., 1997. Empirical Near-Source Attenuation Relationships for Horizontal and Vertical Components of Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground Velocity, and Pseudo-Absolute Acceleration Response Spectra. Seismol. Res. Lett. 68(1), 154 —179.
Campbell K. W., 1981. Near-source attenuation of peak horizontal acceleration. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer 71(6), 2039—2070.
Campbell K. W., 1982. Near-source scaling characteristics of peak horizontal acceleration for moderate-to-large earthquake. Proc. of Workshop, XVI. The dynamic characteristics of faulting inferred from recordings of strong ground motion. Rpt. 82-591. USGS, Vol. l, P. 455—476.
Chiaruttini C., Siro L., 1981. The correlation of peak ground horizontal acceleration with magnitude, distance, and seismic intensity for Friuli and Ancona, Italy, and the Alpide beh. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer 71(6), P. 1993—2009.
Chiaruttini С., Crosilla F., Siro L., 1979. Some maximized acceleration analysis of the 1976 Friuli earthquakes. Boll. Geof Teor. Appl. 21, 38—52.
Duke С. М., Johnsen K. E., Larson L. E., Engman D. C., 1972. Effects of site classification and distance on instrumental indices in the San Fernando earthquake. Rpt. UCLA-ENG-7247. Los Angeles, 50 p.
Fukushima Y., Tanaka T., 1990. A New Attenuation Relation for peak Horizontal Acceleration of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion in Japan. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 80(4), 757—783.
Hardin B. O., Drnevich V. P., 1972. Shear Modulus and Damping in Soils: Design Equations and Curves. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. ASCE. 98(7), 667—692.
Haskell N. A., 1951. Asymptotic Approximation for the Normal Modes in Sound Channel Wave Propagation. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 157—168.
Idriss I. M., Seed H. B., 1968. Seismic response of horizontal soil layers. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. 94, 1003—1031.
Ishibashi I., Zhang X. J., 1993. Unified dynamic shear moduli and damping ratios of sand and clay. Soils Found. 33(1), 182—191.
Ishihara K., 1982. Evaluation of soil properties for use in earthquake response analysis. Proc. Int. Symp. On Numerical Models in Geomechanics, Zurich, P. 237—259.
Ishihara К., Kokusho Т., Silver M. L., 1992. Recent developments in evaluating liquefaction characteristics of local soils. Proc. 12th Int. Conf. On Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rio de Janeiro 1989. General state-of-the-art report, A. A. Balkema. Rotterdam, Brookfield, Vol. 4, P. 2719—2734.
Iwan W. D., 1967. On a class of models for the yielding behavior of continuous and composite systems. J. Appl. Mech. 34, 612—617.
Jeffreys H., 1917. The viscosity of the Earth. Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 77(5), 449—456.
Joyner W. B., Boore D. M., Porcella R. L., 1981. Peak Horizontal Acceleration and Velocity from Strong-Motion Records. Earthquakes Notes 52(l), 80—81.
Kramer S. L., 1996. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. N. J., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 672 p.
Lermo J., Rodriguez M., Singh S. K., 1988. The Mexico earthquake of September 19, 1985 – Natural periods of sites in the valley of Mexico from microtremor measurements and strong motion data. Earthquake Spectra 49(4), 805—814.
Mc Guire R. K., Bamhard T. P., 1979. The usefulness of ground motion duration in predicting the severity of seismic shaking: Preprint. 17 p.
Midorikawa S., 1993. Nonlinearity of site amplification during strong ground shaking. J. Seism. Soc. Japan 46, 207—216.
Mroz Z., 1967. On the description of anisotropic work hardening. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 15, 163—175.
Nakamura Y., 2000. Clear identification of fundamental idea of Nakamura's technique and its applications. Proc. l2th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, New Zealand, Paper 2656. 8 p.
ProShake Ground Response Analysis Program, version 1.1. User’s Manual, EduPro Civil Systems, Washington, USA, 1998.
Richart Jr. F. E., 1978. Dynamic stress-strain relationships for soils, S-O-A paper, Proc. 9 ICSMFE, Tokyo, 3: 605—612.
Saada A., Bianchini G. S. (eds.), 1987. Proc. Int. Workshop on Constitutive Equation for Granular Noncohesive soils. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.
Schnabel P. B., Lysmer J., Seed H. B., 1972. SHAKE: A computer program for earthquake response analysis of horizontally layered sites. Report No. EERC 72-12. Berkeley, California: Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, 102 p.
Seed H. B., Idriss I. M., 1982. Ground motion and soil liquefaction during earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Seed H. B., Idriss I. M., 1970. Soil moduli and damping factors for dynamic response analyses. Report no. EERC70-10, EERC, Univ. of California, Berkeley.
Singh S. K., Mena E., Castro R., 1988. Some aspects of source characteristics of the 19 September Michoacan earthquake and ground motion amplification in and near Mexico City from strong motion. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 78(2), 451—477.
Stoll R. D., 1985. Marine sediment acoustics. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 77(5), 1789—1799.
Suetomi I., Yoshida N., 1996. Effect of frequency characteristics on earthquake motion to the nonlinear response of ground. Proc. 51 Annual. Conf. of JSCE (I-B), P. 352—353.
Thompson W. T., 1950. Transmission of elastic waves though a stratified solid material. J. Appl. Phys. 21(2), 89—93.
Trifunac M. D., 1976. Preliminary analysis of the peaks strong earthquake ground motion-dependece of peaks on earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance, and recording site conditions. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 66(1), 189—219.
Vucetic M., Dobry R., 1991. Effect of soil plasticity on cyclic response. J. Geotech. Eng. 117, 89—107.
Woods R. D., 1991. Field and laboratory determination of soil properties at low and high strains. SOA paper, Proc. 2 Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical. Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Luis, 1727—1741.
Yoshida N., Iai S., 1998. Nonlinear site response and its evaluation and prediction. Proc. 2nd International Symposium on the Effect of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion, P. 71—90.