Underground hydrosphere and geofluids of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle
Keywords:physicochemical state of the water, sub- and supercritical geofluids, hydro- and fluid-geological zonation
The physicochemical state of the water at various temperature and pressure conditions of the Earth’s interior has been characterized. Two groups of geofluidic systems for water have been established: subcritical (T < 374 ¸ 450 °Ñ) and supercritical (T > 374 ¸ 450 °C), which together with the hydrogeological system of structured waters constitute hydrophysical, hydro- and fluid-geological lithosphere zonation. Based on the systematization of data on the decrepitating of gas-liquid inclusions in minerals of rocks of various facies of metamorphism, as well as fluid manifestations in zones of global rifting, a high content of mineral substances in the composition of dense supercritical fluids and a high electrical conductivity of such fluids is established. Recognition of high “salt content” and high electrical conductivity of supercritical fluids opens new possibilities in interpreting local high-speed anomalies and anomalies of electrical conductivity in the Earth’s crust, revealed from deep seismic and magnetotelluric sounding data. It is shown that with the water condensate — a kind of liquid-phase “restite” from the sphere of supercritical fluids separation — the genesis of highly mineralized waters and brines is connected in the crystalline basement of ancient platforms. On the example of the lithosphere of Belarus, for the first time, deep boundaries of localization of both structured water and supercritical geofluids have been determined. The hydro- and fluid-geological zonation of the lithosphere and upper mantle has been established as a basis for solving the scientific and practical problems of tectonophysics, mineralogy, hydrogeology, genesis and distribution of different type’s minerals, including hydrogenogenic minerals. A thermophysical method for determining the depth and thickness of a zone of underground structured waters is proposed. The method is based on comparison of seismic and thermal characteristics of rocks with sub- and supercritical temperatures for water.
Astapenko V. N., Levashkevich V. G., 2004. Thermal and geoelectric model of the lithosphere along the Belarusian-Baltic part of the geotransect “Eurobridge”. Doklady NAN Belarus 48(6), 72—78 (in Russian).
Beus A. A., 1981. Geochemistry of the litosphere. Moscow: Nedra, 335 p. (in Russian).
Vovk I. F., 1979. Radiolysis of groundwater and its geochemical role. Moscow: Nauka, 231 p. (in Russian).
Gavrilenko E. S., Derpgolts V. F., 1971. Hydrosphere of the Earth. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 272 p. (in Russian).
Gorbatyy Yu. E., Bondarenko G. V., 1973. Molecular spectra of water at high pressures and temperatures. In: Phase equilibriums and mineral formation processes. Moscow: Nauka, P. 207—231 (in Rassian).
Gurevich A. E., 1976. Geofluidodynamics: structure and contours of the theory. In: Problem of geofludodynamics. Proceedings of VNIGRI (387), P. 10—46 (in Russian).
Dawson Dj. B., 1969. Ol-Doinho-Lengai is an active volcano with streams of sodium carbonatites. In: Carbonatites. Moscow, Nauka, P. 169—181 (in Russian).
Ilyin V. A., 1972. The state and properties of water in the deep horizons of the Earth’s crust. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka (10), 77—82 (in Russian).
Ilyin V. A., Kononov V. I., Polyak B. G., 1974. The physical state of water in the underground hydrosphere. In: Migration of chemical elements in the underground waters of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka, P. 10—14 (in Russian).
Kolodiy V. V., 1975. Underground condensation and salt water of oil, gas-condensate and gas fields. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 122 p. (in Russian).
Kononov V. I., 1983. The geochemistry of thermal waters in the areas of modern volcanism. Moscow: Nauka, 214 p. (in Russian).
Kononov V. I., Ilyin V. A., 1971. On the state and behavior of water in the Earth’s interior in connection with the processes of metamorphism. In: The importance of structural features of water and aqueous solutions for geological interpretations. Moscow: Edition of the Institute of Geological Sciences, P. 35—65 (in Russian).
Kudelsky A. V., 1982. Lithogenesis, problems of hydrogeochemistry and energy of oil and gas bearing basins. Litologiya i poleznye iskopayemye (5), 101—116 (in Russian).
Kudelsky A. V., Garetski R. G., Aizberg R. Ye., 1997. Geofluidodynamics and oil and gas formation. Minsk: Edition of the Institute of Geological Sciences NAS Belarus, 148 p. (in Russian).
Larin V. N., 1980. Hypothesis of originally hydride Earth. Moscow: Nauka, 216 p. (in Russian).
Letnikov F. À., 2006. Fluid mechanism of destruction of the continental crust and formation of sedimentary oil and gas basins: Abstracts of the International Conference “Degassing of land: geofluids, oil and gas, parageneses in the system of combustible minerals”. Moscow, May 30 — June 1, 2006. P. 6—9 (in Russian).
Logachev N. A., 1977. Volcanogenic and sedimentary formations of the rift zones of East Africa Africa. Moscow: Nauka, 183 p. (in Russian).
Fundamentals of hydrogeology. Geological activity and history of water in the Earth’s interior, 1982. Eds E. V. Pinneker, B. I. Pisarskiy, S. L. Shvartsev). Novosibirsk: Nauka, 239 p. (in Russian).
Ryabchikov I. D., 1985. Water solutions in the upper mantle and the problems of the Earth’s degassing: Proceeding of the conf. “Underground waters and evolution of hydrosphere”, P. 176—186 (in Russian).
Frank E. U., 1971. Supercritical water. In: The importance of structural features of water and aqueous solutions for geological interpretations. Moscow: Edition of the All-Union Institute of Mineral Resources, P. 94—111 (in Russian).
Seinmann Yu. M., 1968. Essays on deep geology. Moscow: Nauka, 231 p. (in Russian).
Craig H., Lupton J. E., 1978. Helium isotopes variations; evidence for mantle plumes at Yellowstone, Kilauea and the Ethiopian rift valley. EOS, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union. 59(12), P. 194.
Eurobridge seismic working group, 1999. Seismic velocity structure across the Fennoscandia-Sarmatia suture of the East Europian Craton beneath the Eurobridge profile through Lithuania and Belarus. Tectonophysics 314, 193—217. doi: 10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00244-9.
Hatherton T., 1969. The Geophysical significance of calc-alkaline andesites in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys. 12, 2—3. doi: 10.1080/00288306.1969.10420292.
Kennedy G. C., 1955. Some aspects of the role of water in rock melts. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper (62), 489—504.
Merlivat L., Pineau E., Javey M., 1987. Hydrothermal vents waters at 13 °N on the East Pacific Rise: isotopic composition and gas concentration. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 84(1), 100—108. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(87)90180-4.
Welhan J. A., Craig H., 1983. Methane, hydrogen and helium in hydrothermal fluids at 21 °N on the East Pacific Rise. In: Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers. New York—London: Springer Verlag, P. 391—409.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).