A new technology for estimating time shifts in seismic monitoring of the exploitation of oil and gas fields and underground gas storage sites
Keywords:seismic monitoring, time-lapse seismic, time shift, cross-correlation, cross-spectrum
The process of exploitation of oil and gas fields and underground natural gas and CO2 storage facilities is accompanied by time-dependent changes in the physical properties of both the reservoir itself and the overburden. The study of these changes via time lapse (4D) seismic allows controlling the efficiency of operation of oil and gas fields and underground gas storage facilities. A wide class of methods uses, as intermediate information, time shifts arising in time lapse seismic data when studying the changes in the geomechanical properties of a reservoir. In this paper, conditions are formulated under which the values of the reflection coefficients of boundaries when changing the properties of a medium are preserved, but shifted to a new position along the two-way traveltime axis. To assess the time shifts that arise in this way, a new technology is developed. It is based on the statistical properties of the cross-correlation function of two time-limited random processes one of which is a shifted and stretched or compressed in time variant of the other. The proposed technology allows the constant and linear components of the time shifts to be determined simultaneously when the number of accumulated cross-correlation functions of such processes is sufficient. The validity of the theoretical foundations of the method is confirmed by two numerical experiments. As a source of input data required for the application of this technology in practice, it is suggested to use a random component of seismic images generated by chaotic fluctuations in the acoustic impedance in the lower half-space. Some methods for approximating the regular component of seismic records are described. Subtracting this component from the record allows its random component, which is necessary for the implementation of the proposed technology in practice, to be obtained.
Avseth P., Skjei N., Skålnes Å., 2013. Rock physics modelling of 4D time-shifts and time-shift derivatives using well log data — a North Sea demonstration. Geophys. Prosp. 61(2), 380—390. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01134.x.
Blanchard T. D., Clark R. A., van der Baan M., Laws E., 2009. Time-lapse attenuation as a tool for monitoring pore fluid changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs. 71st EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper PO52. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609-201400042.
Buland A., El Ouair Y., 2006. Bayesian time-lapse inversion. Geophysics, 71(3), R43—R48. doi: 10.1190/1.2196874.
Chadwick A., Williams G., Delepine N., Clochard V., Labat K., Sturton S., Buddensiek M., Dillen M., Nickel M., Lima A. L., Arts R., Neele F., Rossi G., 2010. Quantitative analysis of time-lapse seismic monitoring data at the Sleipner CO2 storage operation. The Leading Edge, 29(2), 170—177. doi: 10.1190/1.3304820.
Chen S.-Q., Chadwick A., Li X.-Y., 2010. CO2 injection induced dispersion and attenuation. 80th SEG Annual Meeting, Expanded Abstracts, 2527—2531. doi: 10.1190/1.3513363.
Davis T. L., Benson R. D., 2009. Tight-gas seismic monitoring, Rulison Field, Colorado. The Leading Edge, 28(4), 408—411. doi: 10.1190/1.3112753.
Dinh H., van der Baan M., Landrø M., 2015. Time-lapse processing strategies for detecting 4D attenuation changes and shallow gas movement. 77th EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper Th N101 08. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609-201413165.
Dupuy B., Balhareth H. M., Landrø M., Stovas A., 2014. Estimation of rock physics properties and gas saturation from time-lapse full waveform inversion data. 76th EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts. Paper Tu P11 11. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609. 20140932.
Dybvik O. P., Gemmer L., Theune U., Østmo S., 2009. Establishing a geomechanical workflow for time-lapse modeling of an HPHT field. 71st EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper P343. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201400229.
Fomel S., Jin L., 2007. Time-lapse image registration using the local similarity attribute. 77th SEG Annual Meeting, Expanded Abstracts, 2979—2983. doi: 10.1190/1.2793090.
Fomel S., Landa E., Taner M., 2006. Post-stack velocity analysis by separation and imaging of seismic diffractions. 76th SEG Annual Meeting, Expanded Abstracts, 2559—2563. doi: 10.1190/1.2370052.
Franks L. E., 1969. Signal theory. Englewood Cliffs. New York: Prentice-Hall, 317 p.
Grana D., Mukerji T., 2015. Bayesian inversion of time-lapse seismic data for the estimation of static reservoir properties and dynamic property changes. Geophys. Prosp. 63(3), 637—655. doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12203.
Grandi A., Rahmanov O., Neillo V., Bourgeois F., Deplante C., Ben-Brahim L., 2010. Time lapse monitoring of the Elgin HPHT Field. 72nd EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper B040. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201400648.
Grude S., Landrø M., Osdal B., 2012. Time lapse pressure-saturation discrimination for CO2 storage at the Snîhvit field. 82nd SEG Annual Meeting, Expanded Abstracts, 1—5. doi: 10.1190/segam2012-0841.1.
Guilbot J., Smith B., 2002. 4D constrained depth conversion for reservoir compaction estimation: Application to Ekofisk Field. The Leading Edge 21(3), 302—308. doi: 10.1190/1.1463782.
Hatchell P. J., van den Beukel A., Molenaar M. M., Maron K. P., Kenter C. J., Stammeijer J. G. F., van der Velde J. J., Sayers C. M., 2003. Whole earth 4D: Reservoir monitoring geomechanics. 73rd SEG Annual Meeting, Expanded Abstracts, 1330—1333. doi: 10.1190/1.1817532.
Hatchell P., Bourne S., 2005. Rocks under strain: Strain-induced time-lapse time shifts are observed for depleting reservoirs. The Leading Edge 24(12), 1222—1225. doi: 10.1190/1.2149624.
Lie E. O., 2011. Constrained timeshift estimation. 73rd EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper G038. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.20149239.
Naeini E. Z., Hoeber H., 2008. Improved time delay estimation. 70th EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper B068. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.20147879.
Nguyen P. K. T., Nam M. J., Park C., 2015. A review on time-lapse seismic data processing and interpretation. Geosci. J. 19(2), 375—392. doi: 10.1007/s12303-014-0054-2.
Remley W., 1963. Correlation of signals having a linear delay. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35(1), 65—69. doi: 10.1121/1.1918415.
Rickett J., Duranti L., Hudson T., Regel B., Hodgson N., 2007. 4D time strain and the seismic signature of geomechanical compaction at Genesis. The Leading Edge 26(5), 644—647. doi: 10.1190/1.2737103.
Røste T., Stovas A., Landrø M., 2006. Estimation of layer thickness and velocity changes using 4D prestack seismic data. Geophysics 71(6), S219—S234. doi: 10.1190/1.2335657.
Røste T., Landrø M., Hatchell P., 2007. Monitoring overburden layer changes and fault movements from time-lapse seismic data. 69th EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper HO19. doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201401685.
Røste T., Dybvik O. P., Søreide O. K., 2015. Overburden 4D time shifts induced by reservoir compaction at Snorre field. The Leading Edge 34(11), 1366—1374. doi: 10.1190/tle34111366.1.
Schutjens P. M. T. M., Burrell R., Fehmers G., Hindriks K., Collins C., van der Horst J., 2007. On the stress change in overburden resulting from reservoir compaction: Observations from two computer models and implications for 4D seismic. The Leading Edge 26(5), 628—634. doi: 10.1190/1.2737121.
Skov T., Borgos H. G., Halvorsen K. Å., Randen T., Sønneland L., Arts R., Chadwick A., 2002. Monitoring and characterization of a CO2 storage site. 72nd SEG Annual Meeting, Expanded Abstracts, 1669—1672. doi: 10.1190/1.1816997.
Tiapkina O., Landrø M., Tyapkin Y., 2013. Ground-roll subtraction from common-shot gathers with significant trace-to-trace variations in the energy of random noise. J. Geophys. Eng. 10(6). doi: 10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/065001.
Tyapkin Y. K., Marmalyevskyy N. Y., Gornyak Z. V., 2004. Suppression of source-generated noise using the singular value decomposition. 66th EAGE Conference, Extended Abstracts, Paper D028.
Yung S. R., Ikelle L. T., 1997. An example of seismic time picking by third-order bicoherence. Geophysics 62(6), 1947—1951. doi: 10.1190/1.1444 295.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).