Simultaneous seismic inversion to identify prospective areas in carbonate rocks of the southeastern part of the West Siberian Platform
Keywords:simultaneous seismic inversion, acoustic impedance, shear impedance, carbonate rocks, fractured zones
This paper focuses on the description of a technology and results of identifying and mapping areas in Devonian carbonate rocks prospective for hydrocarbons and associated with increased fracture-cavern porosity in the southeastern part of the West Siberian Platform. The lack of wide-azimuthal seismic data and recording of only the vertical component in the study area did not allow the use of the direct indicators of fracture systems based either on azimuthal anisotropy of the amplitudes of pressure waves or on splitting converted waves into fast and slow. Instead, abnormally low values of the ratio of pressure-wave and shear-wave velocities derived by deterministic simultaneous pre-stack seismic inversion were used as an indirect indicator of increased fracturing. The choice of this seismic signature of fractures is substantiated by a brief review of publications on its successful use in the identification and delineation of highly fractured and cavernous zones in carbonate reservoirs. The behaviour of the indicator showed good agreement with well productivity in the study area and, therefore, made it possible to predict a number of perspective pay zones, presumably associated with in-creased fracturing. At the same time, however, well log estimates of the velocity ratio related to fractured reservoirs exhibited an opposite trend, which mismatched the facts observed in the study area and reported in the literature. This apparent discrepancy is explained by the impact of near-vertical natural macro-fracturing, which, due to different measurement scales, might substantially reduce seismic estimates while producing no impact on well log estimates. In order to describe this phenomenon quantitatively, the weak-anisotropy approximation of P-wave reflection coefficients at a horizontal boundary derived by Rüger for transversely isotropic media with a horizontal axis of symmetry was used. This equation was rewritten in terms of impedances and density and then was analyzed analytically. To express the impact of fractures in terms of fracture density, the simplest model of thin, isolated, penny-shaped fractures was used.
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