East-European microplate as an indentor and its orogenic margin

V. V. Gonchar


A problem of modern orogenesis in the northern margin of the East-Black Sea micro-plate has been considered based on numerical modeling. It has been shown that only the upper part (up to 40 km) of its sub-oceanic lithosphere can possess indentor properties. It has been found for planned model that the presence of reinforced area corresponding to sub-oceanic crust of the East-Black Sea depression results in redistribution of deformation field and production of northwestern elongated maximum comparable with the Central and Northwestern Caucasus; the movement of the Arabian plate does not create sufficient conditions for orogenesis along northwestern border of the microplate (the Crimean sector), the required reinforcement of deformations and redistribution of paths of normal tensions is obtained if we use an independent local indentor coinciding with the outlines of Alushta-Batumi zone of magnetic anomalies. Models of orogenesis in vertical sections of lithosphere for the Central Caucasus, Crimea and the Azov sector have been worked out. The character of distribution of deformation fields has been established, zones of plastic and elastoviscous behaviour, three-dimensional compression and expansion (dilatancy) have been separated. The obtained scales of indentor displacement are: 22 km for Caucasus, 14 km — for Crimea, 8 km — for Azov. The plotted curves of vertical motions have nonlinear accelerating character that is connected with elastoviscous transitions in the lithosphere. Comparison of values obtained in the model with published independent data demonstrated if not a coincidence but their good accordance.


East-Black Sea region; Caucasus; Crimea; up-to-date orogenesis; numerical modeling; indentor; vertical and horizontal tectonic displacements


Asmus, V. V., Dementiev, V. N., Rybakov, L. N., & Yunga, S. L. (1992). Geodynamic structures and seismic risk of Northern Armenia. St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, 126 p. (in Russian).

Belousov, V. V. Basics of geotectonics. Moscow: Nedra, 382 p. (in Russian).

Babak, V. I. (1961). Method for constructing paleotectonic maps for studying the history of the latest tectonic movements. In Neotectonics of the USSR (pp. 71—78). Riga: Edition of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR (in Russian).

Bugrov, A. (1974). On the solution of the mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and the theory of plasticity of soils. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov, (6), 21—23 (in Russian).

Vardapetyan, A. N. (1979). Late Cenozoic plate tectonics of the Black Sea-Caspian region. Okeanologiya, 19(6), 1066—1074 (in Russian).

Vyalov, S. S. (1978). Rheological foundations of soil mechanics. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 447 p. (in Russian).

Shpak, P. F. (Ed.). (1986). Geology of the shelf of the Ukrainian SSR. Oil and gas content. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 150 p. (in Russian).

Gintov, O. B., Yegorova, T. P., Tsvetkova, T. A., Bugaenko, I. V., & Murovskaya, A. V. (2014). Geodynamic features of joint zone of the Eurasian plate and the Alpine-Himalayan belt within the limits of Ukraine and adjacent areas. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 36(5), 26—63. (in Russian).

Gobarenko, V., Yegorova, T., & Stephenson, R. (2014). The structure of the Kerch peninsula and north-eastern part of the Black sea crust according to the results of local seismic tomography. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 36(2), 18—34. (in Russian).

Gonchar, V. V. (2009). Deep structure and formation conditions of the Black Sea margins. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, (5), 3—11 (in Russian).

Gonchar, V. V. (2015). On substantiation of mechanism of lateral extrusion of the crust of the Mountain Crimea. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 37(4), 145—150. (in Russian).

Gonchar, V. V. (2013). The collision model of the Crimean orogen — the experience of the finite element method. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 35(6), 146—164. (in Russian).

Gonchar, V. V. (2003). The stress field Crimean Mountains and geodynamic interpretation. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, (3), 97—104 (in Russian).

Gonchar, V. V. (2012). Postrift evolution of the Black Sea basin. Otechestvennaya geologiya, (6), 73—82 (in Russian).

Kazmin, V. G., Lobkovskiy, L. I., & Pustovitenko, B. G. (2004). Present-day microplate kinematics in the Black Sea-South Caspian region. Okeanologiya, 44(4), 600—610 (in Russian).

Knipper, A. L., & Sharaskin, A. Ya. (2005). Tectonic stratification along the crust/mantle section in phyolitic sections. Geotectonika, (1), 6—16 (in Russian).

Lilienberg, D. A. (1980). General and regional pat-terns of the modern geodynamics of the Caucasus (according to geomorphological and instrumental data). In Modern movements of the Earth’s crust (pp. 196—214). Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).

Mikhailov, A. E. (1985). Questions of education and development of the Black Sea basin. In South Black Sea Volcanic Belt and its metallogeny (pp. 78—89). Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Chekunov, A. V. (1994). Young platform and Al-pine fold belt. Lithosphere of Central and Eastern Europe. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 332 p. (in Russian).

Murovskaya, A., Hippolyte, J.-C., Sheremet, Ye., & Yegorova, T. (2018). Recent and paleo-stresses at the northern margin of the Black Sea and the Crimea Mountain in Meso-Cenozoic—Quarter (according to mechanisms of earth-quakes foci and field tectonophysical data). Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 40(1), 44—69. (in Russian).

Nikishin, A. M., Ershov, A. V., & Nikishin, V. A. (2010). Geological history of the Western Caucasus and conjugate marginal deflections based on the analysis of a regional balanced section. Doklady AN, 430(4), 515—517 (in Russian).

Orovetskiy, Yu. P., & Kobolev, V. P. (2006). Hot Earth Belts. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 309 p. (in Russian).

Patalakha, E. I., Gonchar, V. V., Senchenkov, I. K., & Chervinko, O. P. (2003). The Indentor Mechanism in the Geodynamics of the Crimean Black Sea Region. Kiev: Emko, 226 p. (in Russian).

Patalakha, E. I., Senchenkov, I. K., & Gonchar, V. V. (2006). Viscous model of plate tectonics for the Black Sea region (in relation to the problem of the Late Cenozoic evolution of the Black Sea basins). Okeanologiya, 46(5), 703—714 (in Russian).

Puzyrev, N. N., Krylov, S. V., & Mishenkin, B. P. (1975). Reconnaissance techniques for deep seismic surveys. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 157 p. (in Russian).

Somin, M. L. (2015). The Myth of the Main Caucasian Thrust. Tectonics and geodynamics of the continental and oceanic lithosphere: general and regional aspects. Proceedings of the XLVII Tectonic Meeting (Vol. 2, pp. 179—182). Moscow: Geos (in Russian).

Tugolesov, D. A., Gorshkov, A. S., Meysner, L. B., Soloviev, V. V., & Khakhalev, E. M. (1985). Tectonics of the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of the Black Sea Basin. Moscow: Nedra, 215 p. (in Russian).

Trubitsyn, V. P. (2012). Rheology of the mantle and tectonics of the oceanic lithospheric plates. Fizika Zemli, (6), 3—22. doi: 10.1134/S1069351312060079 (in Russian).

Fadeev, A. B. (1987). The finite element method in geomechanics. Moscow: Nedra, 1987. 221p.

Sobolev, G. A. (Ed.). (1991). Physics of rocks at high pressures. Moscow: Nauka, 209p. (in Russian).

Tsvetkova, T. A., & Bugayenko, I. V. (2012). Seismotomography of the mantle under the East European Platform: mantle velocity boundaries. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 34(5), 161—172. (in Russian).

Chekunov, A. V. (1990). Crimea in the system of faults of the Black Sea region. Doklady AN USSR. Ser. B, (3), 20—24 (in Russian).

Schrader, Al. A. (2005). Disclosure of the deep-sea basin of the Black Sea. Okeanologiya, 45(4), 582—604 (in Russian).

Avdeev, B., & Niemi, N. A. (2009). Rapid Pliocene exhumation of the Central Greater Caucasus constrained by low-temperature termochronometry. Tectonics, 30(2), TC2009.

Allen, M., Jackson, J., & Walker, R. (2004). Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics, 23(2), TC2008.

Ershov, A. V., Brunet, M.-F., Nikishin, A. M., Bolotov, S. N., Nazarevich, B. P., & Korotaev, M. V. (2003). Northern Caucasus basin: thermal history and synthesis of subsidence models. Sedimentary Geology, 156(1-4), 95—118.

Finetti, I., Bricchi, G., & Del Ben, A. (1988). Geo-physical study of the Black Sea. Bollettino di Geofisica. Teorica ed applicata, 30(117-118), 75—155.

Leroy, M., Dauteuil, O., & Cobbold, P. R. (2004). Incipient shortening of a passive margin: the mechanical roles of continental and oceanic lithospheres. Geophysical Journal International, 159(1), 400—411.

Leroy, M., Gueydan, F., & Dauteuil, O. (2008). Uplift and strength evolution of passive margins inferred from 2D conductive modeling. Geophysical Journal International, 172(1), 464—476.

Nakapelyukh, M., Belskyi, V., & Ratschbacher, L. (2018). Geometry and Cenozoic evolution of the Crimean fold-thrust belt from cross-section balancing and kinematic forward modeling. Геофиз. журн., 40(2), 12—29.

Philip, H., Cisternas, A., Gvishiani, A., & Gorshkov, A. (1989). The Caucasus: an actual example of the initial stages of continental collision. Tectonophysics, 161(1-2), 1—21.

Reilinger, R., McClusky, S., Vernant, P., Lawrence, S., Ergintav, S., Cakmak, R., Ozener, H., Kadirov, F., Guliev, I., Stepanyan, R., Nadariya, M., Hahubiya, G., Mahmoud, S., Sakr, K., ArRajehi, A., Paradissis, D., Al-Aydrus, A., Prilepin, M., Guseva, T., Evren, E., Dmitrotsa, A., Filikov, S.V., Gomez, F., Al-Ghazzi, R., & Karam, G. (2006). GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. Journal Geophys Research, 111, B05411. doi: 10.1029/2005JB004051.

Saintot, A., Angelier, J., & Chorowicz, J. (1999). Mechanical significance of structural patterns identified by remote sensing studies: a multiscale analysis of tectonic structures in Crimea. Tectonophysics, 313(1-2), 187—218.

Saintot, A., & Angelier, J. (2002). Tectonic paleo-stress fields and structural evolution of the NW-Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary. Tectonophysics, 357(1-4), 1—31.

Creative Commons License
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Flag Counter