Methods of determination of spatial distribution of minor-amplitude faults and fissures in thin-layered coal-bearing geological medium
Keywords:seismicity, fault, fissure, nappe, mine field, Logarithmic decrement of absorption
A problem of determining location of faults and fissured in geological medium which appear in the process of formation of the main types of geological structures: shears, nappes, faults, grabens, axes of folding and compression zones is considered. Areal seismic records of MCDP 3D obtained in the mine field of “Krasnolimanskaya” mine (Donetsk district) were used as initial data. It is located on the monocline of the southwestern part of Kalmius-Torets basin in the hanging wing of the Central nappe with amplitude up to 310m. Monocline occurrence of rocks is complicated by numerous disjunctive faults of the faulting type with amplitudes up to 95m.
The main marker for identification for presence of a fault on the seismic records of MCDP 3D under conditions of horizontally-layered medium is interruption and (or) displacement of the axis of reflected waves phase synchronism. In some cases a diffracted wave appears in the place of horizon rupture. Provided that in the case of complicated geology it seems impossible to identify minor-amplitude displacements and discordant occurrence of reflecting margins related to faults.
For spatial identification of the fault structures position the results of solving the inverse seismic problem are proposed – logarithmic decrements of fading (LDF) with their method of calculation that was put forward by the author previously. Temporal cross-sections of LDF have the same permissive ability as seismic data of MCDP 3D. Such a detail allows separating out minor-amplitude derangements related to faults and fissures. Special feature of temporal data of LDF is in the point that the identifiers of discordant occurrence of reflecting margins are their absorbing properties. The examples of vertical and horizontal LDF sections of a seismic cube 3D where a lot of deep and surface faults can be traced are given in the paper.
Taking into account the complexity of mapping the planes of faults in three-dimensional space a method of automatic determination of the point of drastic change of absorbing properties of the medium (on each of horizontal cuts of the cube) with application of wavelet analysis has been proposed. A matrix of attributes is created of such points by which the planes of faults are plotted.
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