DOI: https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v42i5.2020.215072

Geological structure and tectonic evolution of the Ukrainian sector of the Black Sea

S.M. Stovba, I.V. Popadyuk, P.O Fenota, O.I. Khriachtchevskaia

Abstract


The entire Ukrainian sector of the Black Sea, which occupies its northernmost part, was studied with the interpretation of the post-1990 seismic reflection data along seismic lines having a total length of some 30 000 km. In the northern Black Sea relatively low extension of the continental crust occurred in Albian-Cenomanian times and did not cause formation of deep (sub)-oceanic basins. Rift faults formed three major rift basins. One of the ENE-WSW oriented rift basins occupied areas of the present-day Karkinit Through, Krylov-Zmiiny Uplift, Gubkin Ridge and Sulina Depression within the Odessa Shelf. Another ENE-WSW oriented basin included areas of the present-day Tetyaev High, Sorokin Trough, Crimea Mountains and Marine Continuation of the Crimean Folds. The NW-SE oriented major rift basin occupied areas of the present-day Andrusov Ridge, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Shatskiy High and Euxinian Graben. Passive, thermal (post-rift) subsidence lasted in Turonian—Middle Eocene times and occurred in marine basins with a water depth that did not exceed a few hundred meters. A strong regional compression at the end of the Middle Eocene interrupted the post-rift (thermal) subsidence of rift basins, strongly deformed the sedimentary cover and formed a large NW-SE oriented landmass. This onshore terrain occupied the central and southern parts of the Odessa Shelf and the Crimean Peninsula, and deep-water area, including the Euxinian Graben, Marine Continuation of the Crimean Folds, Sorokin Trough, Tetyaev High, Andrusov Ridge, Shatskiy High and Eastern Black Sea Basin. Up to 5 km of sediments were eroded during the time of the existence of the emerged onshore terrain. Two subsequent S—N compressional events occurred at the end of the Late Miocene and invoked folding and thrusting of the sedimentary sequences in the originally ENE-WSW Cretaceous rift basins mainly. Anticlinal structures on the Odessa Shelf underwent additional growth and numerous new anticline folds were generated on the margins of the Western Black Sea Basin, including the Sorokin Trough and Marine Continuation of Crimean Folds. During both Late Miocene compressional events broad landmasses arose across the northern Black Sea region. These onshore terrains ran in a roughly E-W direction and occupied the present-day shallow shelves and northern part of the current deep water as well as almost the whole Crimea Peninsula. Like the Late Eocene landmass, the Late Miocene onshore terrains were evidently a source of sediments into marine basins that surrounded them. The first Late Miocene compression probably coincided in time with the Messinian Salinity Crisis and it was apparently accompanied by a sharp fall of the sea level. Prior to the second Late Miocene compressional event the sea level had risen sufficiently that a considerable part of the Odessa Shelf and other parts of the middle Pontian landmass were covered, at least periodically, by a shallow sea. The present-day deep-water part of the study area began to subside rapidly in the Pliocene. The mechanical response to this rapid subsidence appears to have reactivated normal faulting of the previously inverted south-dipping rift faults along the coast of the Crimean Mountains and in the eastern part of the Euxinian Graben during the Pleistocene and possibly Holocene. The very rapid subsidence and lack of sedimentary supply led to sub-oceanic water depth in the Western and Eastern Black Sea basins that had previously developed as relatively shallow seas.


Keywords


Black Sea; Odesa Shelf; Eastern Black Sea Basin; Western Black Sea Basin; Andrusov Ridge; tectonic evolution; inverted rift structures; rifting; compression; Messinian event; Mesozoic; Cenozoic; seismic interpretation

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