Features of the velocity structure of the mantle under the Precambrian structures on the example of the Indian platform (according to seismic tomography)
The paper presents additional data, approaching to understanding the driving forces in the formation of geological structures and the development of the Indian platform. The results of seismic tomography are attracted here and their analysis is presented. A 3-dimensional P-velocity model of the mantle of the Indian platform was obtained according to the Taylor approximation method developed by V. Geyko. The undeniable advantages of the method are independence from the initial approximation (reference model) and the best approximation of nonlinearity. According to the data, the mantle under the Indian platform is influenced by both plumes and fluid systems. The influence of plumes is observed in the form of low-velocity subvertical exits from the lower mantle to the transition zone; fluids — in the form of interbedding of high and low velocity anomalies from the lower mantle (or from the transition zone of the upper mantle) to the upper mantle. An analysis is presented of both general velocity structure of the platform mantle and the velocity structure of the mantle under individual cratons (Bandelkand, Singhbum, Bastar and Darvar), the totality of which forms the Indian platform and the trap provinces. At lower velocity, an area is distinguished in the mantle that corresponds to the surface of the Narmada-Son lineament moving into the Central Indian Tectonic Zone. The mantle high-velocity structures under the Deccan trap province, together with their spreading area in the transitional zone of the mantle, subdivide the platform into two parts at depths of 375 km. Areas in the mantle with inclined layers were identified and analyzed: under the cratons Bandelkand and Singbum, the Rajmahal traps and the northern border of the Deccan traps. According to the model, an area bordering the Himalayas is well distinguished in the mantle. It is shown how, when the Indian platform collides with the Eurasian margin, the upper mantle stratifies into plates capable of independent motions, including subduction.
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