Strong earthquakes in Azerbaijan for historical and contemporary periods (conceptual review)
Keywords:destructive earthquakes; Azerbaijan; seismicity of the region; seismic hazard; intensity of shaking at the epicenter; methods of assessing seismic hazard
Based on the results of the study of literary and archival primary sources, the paper clarifies the available information about catastrophic and destructive earthquakes in Azerbaijan for the historical period with a magnitude of M≥6. Among the strong historical earthquakes in Azerbaijan there are the following: earthquakes in 427, the Ganja (Goygol in 1139), the Ganja in 1235, the East Caucasian in 1667 (± 1 year), the Mashtaga (1842), numerous Shamakhi earthquakes (1192, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1828, 1859, 1868, 1872, 1902), Ardebil (1924), Lankaran (1913), Caspian earthquakes (957, 1812, 1842, 1852, 1911, 1935, 1961, 1963, 1986, 1989, 2000), which caused both changes in the relief of the Earth’s surface, and the destruction of buildings and numerous human casualties. The background seismicity was investigated based on the results of continuous instrumental observations for the period 1902—2019. Seismic processes are unevenly distributed on the territory of Azerbaijan. Existing catalogs of seismic events have been investigated. The behavioral changes in seismicity parameters have been studied. An overview conceptual analysis of two main methods for assessing seismic hazard is given: probabilistic and deterministic, which have found their wide application in recent decades. In conclusion, the most important and general tasks of future seismological studies are emphasized, which are to be performed in the next decades.
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