What happened to the Early Precambrian granulite complexes of the Bug region (Ukrainian shield) and the Limpopo belt (South Africa) and how to stratify them? A tectonist’s view
Keywords:Ukrainian shield, Bug area, Limpopo area, Archean, granulites, tectonics, stratigraphy, study methods
The author reviews two alternative approaches (stratigenic-metamorphogenic and deformation-metamorphogenic) to the geology and mapping of the Earth’s oldest crust rocks that were metamorphized in РТ-conditions of the granulite facies, on the examples of two granulite belts — the Bug area complex (Ukrainian shield) and Limpopo belt (Southern Africa).
There was shown a fairly good correlation of the composition and metamorphism (including the dynamometamorphism) of the rock complexes of both belts and their at least three-stage origin and transformation. The granulitic metamorphism processes within both belts happened before 3,0 b.y.a., 2,6—2,8, and c. 2,0 b.y.a. The structural-metamorphic transformations of the granulitic complexes, formation of their new structural plans with the destruction of the former (archean) by the following (proterozoan) do not allow falsifiably stratifying the archean granulitic complexes within the stratigenic-metamorphogenic approach already at the facies level. For the Bug area granulitic belt it is feasible only to isolate the Dniester-Bug and Bug series. Two of the important processes of the belt development are rock deformation in the compression and slip conditions and formation within the granulitic complexes of the sub-vertically-layered medium, slip folds with sub-vertical folds’ joints and wings. In both belts these processes began in the Neoarchean. This shows that in that time the tectonic processes were already to some significant degree propelled by plate tectonics mechanisms. Both belts had in common the formation of the linear-typeshearzonesat micro- to macroscale and their superimposition onto the deformation structures of the granulitic complexes of the preceding developmental stages. On their basis there formed the internal structure of the belts’ and their interconnections with the adjacent blocks of crust. Presumably, the archean charnokitoids and TTG-granitoids form the same structural layer of the crust, given their geochemical similarity and close age, and this layer is the base for the greenstone belts. The mineral composition, РТ-metamorphism conditions and age of granulitic belt rocks based on their U-Pb, Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd isotope systems compositions andoxygen isotope composition in Zirconium grains suggest that in the eo- and paleoarchean mantle and crust there should have already been amassed large quantities of medium-acidic matter which gave rise to the TTG complexes.
Artemenko, G.V., Shumlyanskiy, L.V., & Bekker, A.Yu. (2020).The First Data of the Eoarchean (3.95 Ga) rocks in the basis of the Azov Block of the Ukrainian Shield. Proceedings of the LII Tectonic Meeting, Moscow (pp. 20—24) (in Russian).
Bezborodko, M.I. (1935). Petrogenesis and Petrogenetic Map of the Crystalline strip of Ukraine. Kyiv: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 389 p. (in Ukrainian).
Bibikova, E.V. (2004).The Ancient Earth Rocks: Isotopic Geochronology and Geochemistry of Isotopes. Mineralohichnyy Zhur-nal, 26(3), 13—20 (in Russian).
Bluman, B.A. (2015). The evolution of events in the history of the development of the Earth from 4.5 to 0.9 billion years. St. Pe-tersburg: VSEGEI Publ., 312 p. (in Russian).
Bobrov, A.B., Stepanyuk, L.M., Lysak, A.M., & Lysenko, A.A. (2010). Slavgorod granulite complex. In Granulite Structural and Formational Complexes of the Ukrainian Shield — European Stratotype (pp. 64—78). Lviv: ZUGC (in Russian).
Borukaev, Ch.B., Basharin, A.K., & Berzin, N.A. (1977). Pre-Cambrian continents. The main features of tectonics. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 342 p. (in Russian).
Vinogradov, G.G. (1970). On the genesis of the pyroxene gneisses and some questions of the stratigraphy of Precambrian of the Middle Bug area. In Petrography of Pre-Cambrian Russian Platform (pp. 352—357). Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).
Voynovskyy, A.S., Zhuzhoma, V.M., Bobrov, O.B., & Merkushin, I.E. (2011). Correlation of the Enderbitoids of the Western and Central Parts of the Ukrainian Shield by Geochemical Criteria. Mineral'ni resursy Ukrayiny, (2), 16—19 (in Ukrainian).
Gamilton, W.B. (2007). The First Two Billion Years of the Earth — the Epoch of Crustal Internal Mobility. In Structure of Conti-nental Crust. Proceedings of Geological Society of America 200. (pp. 233—296) (in Russian).
Gerya, T.V. (1999). Trends of P-T and the model of formation of Precambrian granulite complexes. Doctorś thesis. Moscow, 354 p. (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B. (2005). Field tectonophysics and its application in the study of deformations of the Earth’s crust of Ukraine. Kiev: Feniks, 572 p. (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B. (2015). Problems of geodynamics of the Ukrainian shield in Precambrian. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 37(5), 3—22. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v37i5.2015.111142 (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B. (2014). Scheme of Periodization of Stages of Faulting in the Earth’s Crust of the Ukrainian Shield — New Data and Implications. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 36(1), 3—18 (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B., & Isay, V.M. (1984). Some regularities of faulting and methodology of morphokinematic analysis of faults. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 6(3), 3—10 (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B., & Isay, V.M. (1988). Tectonophysical investigations of Consolidated Crust Fractures. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 228 (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B., Entin, V.A., Mychak, S.V., Pavlyuk, V.N., & Zyultsle, V.V. (2016). Structural-petrophysical and tectonophysical base of geological map of crystalline basement of the central part of Golovanevsk suture zone of the Ukrainian Shield. Geof-izicheskiy Zhurnal, 38(3), 3—28. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v38i3.2016.107777 (in Russian).
Gintov, О.B., Entin, V.A., Mychak, S.V., & Farfuliak, L.V. (2020). The Bug mining area of the Ukrainian shield. Structural-petrophysical map of the crystalline basement and some problems of the Early Precambrian geology. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 42(3), 16—46. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v42i3.2020.204699 (in Ukrainian).
Gintov, О.B., Orlyuk, M.I., Entin, V.A., Pashkevich, I.K., Mychak, S.V., Bakarzhieva, M.I., Shimkiv, L.M., & Marchenko, A.V. (2018). The structure of the Western and Central parts of the Ukrainian schield. Controversial issues. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 40(6), 3—29. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v40i6.2018.151000 (in Ukrainian).
Gintov, O.B., & Shevchuk, V.V. (2017). Structuralization of the Ukrainian Shield and Peculiarities of the Early Cambrian Faulting in the Golovanevsk Suture Zone. Kyiv: NVP Interservice, 162 p. (in Ukrainian).
Dovgan, R.M., Zyultsle, V.V., & Entin, V.A. (1989). Geological structure and minerals of the Zavaliev geological area. Report on the deep geological mapping of the sheet M-35-144-B, jointly with the geological survey of the sheet M-35-132-G. Vol. 1. Kiev: Ukrgeolfund, 256 (in Russian).
Entin, V.A. Structural and tectonic features of the crystalline basement and predictive assessment for magnetite ores of deposits of the Middle Bug region (according to geological and geophysical data). Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Kiev, 1987. 32 p. (in Russian).
Entin, V.A., Gintov, O.B., Myschak, S.V., & Yushin, A.A. (2015). The structure of the Moldovan iron ore deposit (The Ukrainian shield) according to geological-geophysical data and its possible endogenous nature. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 37(4), 3—18. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v37i4.2015.111118 (in Russian).
Esipchuk, K.Yu., Bobrov, O.B., Stepanyuk, L.M., Scherbak, M.P., Glevasky, Ye.B., Skobelyev, V.M., Drannik, A.S., & Gey-chenko, M.V. (2004). Correlated Chronostratigraphic Scheme of the Early Precambrian of the Ukrainian Shield (Explanatory Note). NSK of Ukraine. Publishing House of UkrDGRI, 31 (in Ukrainian).
Kirilyuk, V.P. (2005). The main results of morphoparagenetic geological and formational studies of the Lower Precambrian. Visnyk L'vivs'koho Universytetu. Seriya heolohichna, (19), 52—74 (in Ukrainian).
Kirilyuk, V.P. (2013). Features of stratigraphic studies of the Lower Precambrian. Article 1. Features of traditional stratigraphic dissection. Geologicheskiy Zhurnal, (3), 101—115 (in Russian).
Kirilyuk, V.P. (2010). The Bug area granulite complex. In Granulitic Structural and Formational complexes of the Ukrainian Shield — European Stratotype (pp. 8—630). Lviv: ZUGC (in Russian).
Kirilyuk, V.P. (1982a). Stratigraphy of the Precambrian of the Western Part of the Ukrainian Shield (on the Formation Basis). 1. Stratigraphic Complexes of the Precambrian and Early Archean Formations. Geologichesky Zhurnal, 42(3), 88—103 (in Russian).
Kirilyuk, V.P. (1982б). Stratigraphy of the Precambrian of the Western Part of the Ukrainian Shield (on the Formation Basis). 2. Formations of the Late Archean and Proterozoic, and a composite stratigraphic scheme. Geologicheskiy Zhurnal, 42(4), 30—42 (in Russian).
Kirilyuk, V.P. (2007). Tectonic Map of Ukraine. Scale 1:1000 000. Part II. Tectonics of the Ukrainian Shield foundation. Scale 1:2 000 000. Explanatory note to the «Tectonic map of the foundation of the Ukrainian Shield» scale 1: 2 000 000. Kyiv: UkrDGRI Publication, 87 p. (in Russian).
Kirilyuk, V.P., Lysak, A.M., & Sivoronov, A.A. (2020). Stratigraphy of granulite complexes of the Ukrainian Shield and their geologic and formational correlation. Article 3. Stratigraphy of granulite complexes of megablock infrastructure and consoli-dated correlation. Geologichniy Zhurnal, (1), 70—85 (in Russian).
Kislyuk, V.V., Zyultsle, V.V., & Nikitash, L.P. (2011). Geological structure and minerals of the Southern Bug and Dnister rivers water bodies. Report on the GDP-200 area of the M-35-XXXVI (Gaivoron). Kyiv: Geolfunds, 460 p. (in Ukrainian).
Kostyuchenko, V.S., Zyultsle, V.V., Vykhodtsev, N.K., & Fedorov, A.V. (1990). Geological Structure and Mineral Resources of the Middle Bug area. Report of the In-Depth Geological Mapping on a Scale of 1:200 000 sheet M-36-XXXI. Vol. 1. Kiev: Ukrgeolfund, 338 p. (in Russian).
Lazko, V.M., Kirilyuk, V.P., Sivoronov, A.A., & Yatsenko, G.M. (1975). Lower Precambrian of the Western Part of the Ukrainian Shield (Age Complexes and Formations). Lvov: Vyshcha Shkola, 239 p. (in Russian).
Lesnaya, I.M., & Kasyanenko, E.O. (2015). Acces¬sory zircon (composition, isotopic age) from the enderbites of the Litin block (USh). Heokhimiya ta rudoutvorennya, (35), 29—36 (in Russian).
Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Balaganskiy, V.V., Baltybayev, Sh.K., Stepanyuk, L.M., Ponomarenko, A.N., Lokhov, K.I., Koreshko-va, M.Yu. Yurchenko, A.V., Egorova, Yu.S., Sukach, V.V., Berezhnaya, N.G., & Bogomolov, E.S. (2013). Stages of formation of the Bug area granulite complex by the data of isotopic-geochronological investigations (the Middle Bug area, Ukrainian Shield). Mineralohichnyy Zhurnal, 36(2), 86—98 (in Russian).
Lobach-Zhuchenko, S.B., Balaganskiy, V.V., Baltybaev, Sh.K., Artemenko, G.V., Bogomolov, E.S., Yurchenko, A.V., Stepa-nyuk, L.M., & Sukach, V.V. (2014). Metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Dniester-Bug series of the Paleoarchean of the Ukrainian Shield: composition, age, sources. Litologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye, (5), 1—18 (in Russian).
Lukienko, O.I., Kravchenko, D.V., & Sukhorada, A.V. (2008). Dislocation Tectonics and Tectonofacies of the Precambrian of the Ukrainian Shield. Kyiv: VPC «Kyiv University», 279 p. (in Ukrainian).
Luchitskiy, V.I. (1927). Crystalline Limestones, Charno-kyte Granites and Kinzigites of the Northern part of Ukraine. Zapiski Kiyevskogo obshchestva yestestvoispytateley, 27(2), 7—27(in Russian).
Lysak, A.M., & Bobrov, A.B. (2010). Periazov Granulite Complex. In Granulite Structural and Formational Complexes of the Ukrainian Shield of European Stratotype (pp. 79—81). Lviv: ZUGC (in Russian).
Mychak, S.V. (2019). Structural peculiarities and kinematic development of the Earth’s crust of the western part of the Ukrainian shield. Extended abstract of Doctor¢s thesis. Kyiv. 38 p. (in Ukrainian).
Мychak, S.V., Bakarzhieva, М.I., Marchenko, A.V., Reshetnyk, M.M., Farfuliak, L.V., Оrlyuk, M.I., & Gintov, О.B. (2021). Gaivoron—Zavallia section of the Middle Pobuzhzhіa is the most representative part of the granulite complex of the Ukrainian Shield (structural-tectonophysical results and magnetometric studies). Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 43(4), 42—75. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v43i4.239958 (in Ukrainian).
Mychak, S.V., Murovskaya, G.V., Polyachenko, E.B., & Belskyi, V.M. (2018). Stress-defor¬med state of the Earth crust of the Bug mining area in the section Gayvoron—Zavalye. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 40(2), 95—107. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v40i2.2018.128933 (in Ukrainian).
Nalivkina, E.B. (1964). Charnokites of the southwestern part of the Ukrainian crystalline massif and their genesis. Moscow: Nedra, 124 p. (in Russian)
Negrutsa, V.Z. (2011). Stratigraphic Problems of the Lower Precambrian Russia (Historical and Methodological Analysis). Litasfera, (1), 3—19 (in Russian).
Nechaev, S.V., Gintov, O.B., & Mychak, S.V. (2019). On the relation between the rare-earth — rare-metal and gold ore minerali-zation and fault-block tectonics of the Ukrainian Shield. 1. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 41(1), 3—32. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v41i1.2019.158861 (in Russian).
Starostenko, V.I., & Gintov, O.B. (Eds.). (2018). Essays on the geodynamics of Ukraine. Kyiv: VI EN EY, 466 p. (in Russian).
Perchuk, L.L. (1997). Thermo-Barometry and Moving Crystalline Rocks in the Crust and Upper Mantle of the Earth. Sorosovskiy obrazovatel’nyy zhurnal, (7), 64—72 (in Russian).
Perchuk, L.L. (1996). Phase matching and geological thermo-barometry. Sorosovskiy obra¬zo¬vatel’nyy zhurnal, (6), 74—82 (in Russian).
Perchuk, L.L., Gerya, T.V., van Rinen, D.D., Krotov, A.V., Safonov, O.G., Smith, K.A., & Schur, M.Yu. (2000). Comparative petrology and metamorphic evolution of the rich landscapes of Limpopo (South Africa) and Lapland (Fennoscandia). Miner-alogiya i petrologiya, (69), 69—107 (in Russian).
Polovinkina, Yu.Ir., & Nalivkina, E.B. (1964). Genesis of Charnokites of Ukraine. In Reports of Soviet geologists. Problem 13 «Charnockites» (pp. 7—11). Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
Ponomarenko, A.N., Gintov, O.B., & Stepanyuk, L.M. (2018). On the so-called «leukog¬ranulite formation» and «greenlevada suite» of Early Precambrian of the Ukrainian Shield.Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 40(5), 47—70. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v40i5.2018.147474 (in Russian).
Slenzak, O.I. (1965). The Structure of the Ukrainian Pre-Cambrian (on the example of the south-western part of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 139 p. (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M. (2000). Geochronology of the Precambrian of the Western part of the Ukrainian Shield (Archean-Paleoproterozoic). Doctor¢s thesis. Kyiv, 290 p. (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M. (2020). Granulite association of the Bug area: stratigraphy or geochronology. Collection of Theses of Interna-tional Scientific Conference «Precambrian: rock associations and their ore-bearing capacity». M.P. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, September 22—24 (pp. 26—29) (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M. (2018). Problems of stratigraphy and geochronology of the Ukrainian Shield. Mineralohichnyy Zhurnal, 40(1), 16—31. https://doi.org/10.15407/mineraljournal.40.01.016 (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M., Dovbush, T.I., Kurylo, S.I., Zyultsle, O.V., Yaskevich, T.B. (2017). Uranium-lead age of monatsites from biotitic gneisses of the Middle Bug area of the Ukrainian Shield. Mineralohichnyy Zhurnal, 39(2), 46—56. https://doi.org/10.15407/mineraljournal.39.02.046 (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M., Dovbush, T.I., Kurilo, S.I., & Lisna, I.M. (2016). The final stage of granitoid magmatism in the Dnister-Bug megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Heokhimiya ta rudoutvorennya, (36), 72—81 (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M., Ponomarenko, O.M., Petrichenko, K.V., Kurilo, S.I., Dovbush, T.I., Sergeev, S.A., Rodionov, M.V. (2015). Uranium-lead isotopic geochronology of granitoids of the Berdychiv type of the Bug area (Ukrainian Shield). Mineralohich-nyy Zhurnal, 37(3), 51—66 (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M., Shumlyanskyy, L.V., Ponomarenko, O.M., Dovbush, T.I., Visotsky, O.B., & Djum, Br. (2010). Age limits of the formation of Koshar-Olexandrivka suite of the Bug series of the Bug area. Heokhimiya ta rudoutvorennya, (28), 4—10 (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M., Shumlyanskyy, L.V., Wilde, S.A., & Nemchin, A.A. (2020a). The U-Pb zircon age of the cristalline rocks in the area of Yatran River (the Middle Buh area). Collection of theses of the International Scientific Conference «Precambrian: Rock Associations and their Ore-formation Capacity». M.P. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore-formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 22—24 September (pp. 29—32) (in Ukrainian).
Stepanyuk, L.M., Shumlyanskyy, L.V., Wilde, S.A, & Nemchin, A.A. (2020). The U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon geochronology of endogeneous geological processes in rocks of the granulite association of the Middle Buh area (Chausove openpits). Collection of theses of the International Scientific Conference «Precambrian: Rock Associations and their Ore-formation Capacity». M.P. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore-formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 22—24 September (pp. 32—34) (in Ukrainian).
Tabatabaeymanesh, S.M. (2006). Petrology of polymetamorphic granulites of the central zone of Limpopo complex, South Africa. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Moscow, 21 p. (in Russian).
Usenko, O.V. (2021). Tonalite-trondjemite-granodiorite formation of the Archaean. Special features of composition and condi-tions of formation, Ukrainian Shield as an example. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 43(1), 38—68. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v43i1.2021.225541 (in Russian).
Chekunov, A.V., Sollogub, V.B., Galetskiy, L.S., & Kurlov, N.S. (1989). Geodynamic Model of the Central Part of the Ukrainian Shield and Krivoy Rog Superdeep Borehole. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 11(4), 3—13 (in Russian).
Shumlyansky, L.V. (2012). Geochemistry of pyroxene plagiogenesis (enderbits) Pobuzhya and hafnium isotopic composition in zircons. Mineralohichnyy Zhurnal, 34(2), 64—79 (in Ukrainian).
Shcherbak, N.P., Artemenko, G.V., Lesnaya, I.M., & Ponomarenko, A.N. (2005). Geochronology of the Early Precambrian of the Ukrainian Shield. Archaea. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 243 p. (in Russian).
Shcherbak, N.P., Artemenko, G.V., Lesnaya, I.M., Ponomarenko, A.N., & Shumlyanskiy, L.V. (2008). Geochronology of the Ear-ly Precambrian of the Ukrainian Shield. Proterozoic. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 239 p. (in Russian).
Shcherbakov, I.B. (2005). Petrology of the Ukrainian Shield. Lvov: ZUGC, 366 p. (in Russian).
Barton Jr., J.M., Holzer, L., Kamber, B., Doig, R., Kramers, J.D. & Nyfeler, D. (1994). Discrete metamorphic events in the Limpopo belt, southern Africa: implications for the application of P-T paths in complex metamorphic terranes. Geology, 22(11), 1035—1038. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<1035:DMEITL>2.3.CO;2.
Boshoff, R., Van Reenen, D.D., Kramers, J.D., Smit, C.A., Perchuk, L.L., & Armstrong, R. (2006). Geologic history of the Central zone of the Limpopo complex: the West Alldays area. Journal of Geology, 114(6), 699—716. https://doi.org/10.1086/507615.
Condie, K.C. (2004). Precambrian superplume events. In P.G. Eriksson, W. Altermann, D.R. Nelson, W.U. Mueller, O. Catuneanu, (Eds.), The Precambrian Earth: Tempos and Events (pp. 163—173). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Eriksson, P.G., Catuneanu, O., Nelson, D.R., Rigby, M.J., Bandopadhyay, P.C., & Altermann, W. (2012). Events in the Precam-brian history of the Earth; challenges in discriminating their global significance. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 33(1), 8—25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.01.009.
Ernst, R.E., Buchan, K.L., & Campbell, I.H. (2005). Frontiers in Large Igneous Province research. Lithos, 79(3-4), 271—297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2004.09.004.
Ernst, W.G., Sleep, N.H., & Tsujimori, T. (2016). Plate-tectonic evolution of the Earth: bottom-up and top-down mantle circula-tion. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 53(11) 1103—1120. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2015-0126.
Gerdes, A., & Zeh, A. (2009). Zircon formation versus zircon alteration — new insights from combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf in-situ LA-ICP-MS analyses, and consequences for the interpretation of Archean zircon from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Chemical Geology, 261, 230—243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo. 2008.03.005.
Kröner, A., Jaeckel, P., Brandl, G., Hofmann, A., & Nemchin, A.A. (1998). Field relationships and age of supracrustal Beit Bridge Complex and associated granitoid gneisses in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 101(3), 201—213.
Kröner, A., & Hofmann, A. (2019). The Archaean Geology of the Kaapvaal Craton, Southern Africa. Springer, 305 p.
Latypov, R., Chistyakova, S., Grieve, R.A.F, & Huhma, H. (2019). Evidence for igneous differentiation in Sudbury Igneous Com-plex and impact-driven evolution of terrestrial planet proto-crusts. Nature Communications, 10(1), 1—12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08467-9.
Mason, R. (1973). A Discussion on the evolution of the Precambrian crust — The Limpopo mobile belt — Southern Africa. Phil-osophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 273, 463—485. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1973.0012.
McCourt, S. & Vearncombe, J.R. (1987). Shear zones bounding the central zone of the Limpopo mobile belt, southern Africa. Journal of Structural Geology, 9, 127—137. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(87)90021-6.
McCourt, S. & Vearncombe, J.R. (1992). Shear Zones of the Limpopo Belt and adjacent granitoid-greenstone terranes, implica-tions for late Archaean collision tectonics in Southern Africa. Precambrian Research, 55(1-4), 553—570. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(92)90045-P.
McCourt, S. & Armstrong, R.A. (1998). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of granites from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, southern Africa: implications for the age of the Limpopo Orogeny. South African Journal of Geology, 101, 329—338.
O’Neil, J., Carlson, R.W., Francis, D., Stevenson, R.K. (2008). Neodymium-142 Evidence for Hadean Mafic Crust. Science, 321, 1828—1831. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1161925.
Smit, C.A., & Van Reenen, D.D. (1997). Deep Crustal Shear Zones, High-Grade Tectonites, and Associated Metasomatic Altera-tion in the Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Implications for Deep Crustal Processes. The Journal of Geology, 105(1), 37—57. https://doi.org/10.1086/606146.
Trypolsky, O.A., Topoliuk, O.V., & Gintov, O.B. (2019). The structure of the earth’s crust of the central part of the Holovanivsk suture zone according to the reinterpretation of materials of IV geotraverse of NHS (PK 295-400). Геофиз. журн. Т. 41, № 1. 172—179.
Zeh, A., Klemd, R., & Barton, Jr., J.M. (2005). Petrological evolution in the roof of the high-grade metamorphic Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. Geological Magazine, 142(3), 229—240. https://doi.org/10.1017/S001675680500052X.
Zeh, A., & Gerdes, A., Klemd, R., & Barton, Jr., J.M. (2007). Archaean to Proterozoic Crustal Evolution in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (South Africa-Botswana): Constraints from Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf Isotope Analyses of Zircon. Journal of Petrology, 38(8), 1605—1639. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm032.
Van Reenen, D.D., Barton, J.M., Roering, C., Smit, C.A., & Van Schalkwyk, J.F. (1987). Deep crustal response to continental collision: the Limpopo Belt of southern Africa. Geology, 15(1), 11—14. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<11:DCRTCC>2.0.CO;2.
Van Reenen, D.D., Boshoff, R., Smit, C.A., Perchuk, L.L., Kramers, J.D., McCourt, S., & Armstrong, R.A. (2008). Geochrono-logical problems related to polymetamorphism in the Limpopo Complex, South Africa. Gondwana Research, 14, 644—662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2008.01.013.
Van Reenen, D.D., Perchuk, L.L., Smit, C.A., Varlamov, D.A., Boshoff, R., Huizenga, J.M., & Gerya, T.V. (2004). Structural and P-T evolution of a major cross fold in the Central Zone of the Limpopo high-grade terrain, South Africa. Journal of Petrology, 45(7), 1413—1439.
Van Reenen, D.D., & Smit, C.A. (1996). The Limpopo metamorphic complex, South Africa 1. Geological setting and relationships between the granulite complex and the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. Petrology, 4(6), 562—570.
Wiemer, D., Schrank, C.E., Murphy, D., & Wenham, L. (2018). Earth’s oldest stable crust in the Pilbara Craton formed by cyclic gravitational overturns. Nature Geoscience, 11(5), 357—361. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0105-9.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).