Three-layer structure of the Carpathian sedimentary prism from the results of seismic migration on the PANCAKE and RomUkrSeis WARR profiles
Keywords:migration of reflected/refracted waves, WARR (DSS) profiles, sedimentary prism, Ukrainian Carpathians, Trans-European Suture Zone
The method of finite-difference migration of reflected/refracted waves, applied to the PANCAKE and RomUkrSeis WARR seismic profiles, made it possible to form wave images of sedimentary layer and crystalline basement under the Carpathian orogen to a depth of 25 km. The study area belongs to Ukrainian Carpathians, which consist of Outer Carpathians — the Cretaceous-Neogene accretionary prism and Inner Carpathians —fragments of Alkapa and Tissia-Dakia microplates. The Carpathian belt is thrusted over the Neogene Carpathian Foredeep, which was laid on the basement of the Eastern/West European platforms. We used a technique specially developed for WARR study to generate a wave image of basement and deep sedimentary basin. The wave images obtained for two profiles show the presence of deep troughs (accretionary prism) under the Carpathian orogen and reveal their similarities and differences due to the peculiarities of the tectonic development in the junction zone of East- and West European platforms. The sedimentary prism reaches a depth of 20 km and consists of three nested troughs distinguished well in the wave field and characterized by different velocities on velocity models. The upper two layers up to ~15 km belong to the allochthon of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the underlying sequence. Whereas the lower one (15—21 km) could represent the older complexes of the basement, up to the Neoproterozoic age (Ediacaran), associated with accretion of young plates from the west to the East European platform and formation of the Trans-European suture zone. The deep trough along the RomUkrSeis profile is significantly narrower than along the PANCAKE one, which indicates a stronger shortening of the sedimentary basin (and possibly the upper crust) in the southeastern part of Ukrainian Carpathians. The sedimentary prism on both profiles is bounded from both sides by steeply dipping faults — from the east by the Forecarpathian fault, and from the west by the Transcarpathian fault along PANCAKE profile and by the Dragos Voda fault on RomUkrSeis profile, which may indicate active strike-slip tectonics.
Verpakhovska, A.O. (2021).Technique for the imaging crystalline basement according to the DSS data. Geophysical Journal, 43(5), 127—149. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v43i5.244076 (in Russian).
Verpahovskaya, A.O. (2012). Forming an image of complex parts of the structure of the refracting boundary. Geophysical Journal, 34(5), 150—160. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v34i5.2012.116671 (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B., Yegorova, T.P., Tsvetkova, T.A., Bugaenko, I., & Murovskaya, A.V. (2014). Geodynamic features of joint zone of the Eurasian plate and the Alpine-Himalayan belt within the limits of Ukraine and adjacent areas. Geophysical Journal, 43(5), 127—149. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v36i5.2014.111568 (in Russian).
Dolenko, G.N. (Ed.). (1980). Deep structure, formation and oil and gas potential of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 147 p. (in Russian).
Glushko, V.V., & Kruglov, S.S. (Eds.). (1971). Geological structure and combustible minerals of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Moscow: Nedra, 389 p. (in Russian).
Hnylko, O., Hnylko, S., Kulyanda, M., & Marchenko, R. (2021). Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the advanced part of the thrust structure of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Heolohiya i heokhimiya horyuchykh kopalyn, (1-2), 45—59. https://doi.org/10.15407/ggcm2021.01-02.045 (in Ukrainian).
Hnylko, O.M., Hnylko, S.R., & Heneralova, L.V. (2015). Formation of the structure of the Klippen zones and the interklippen flysch of Inner Ukrainian Carpathians — result of convergence and collision of microcontinental terranes. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle, (2), 5—13 (in Russian).
Zayats, Kh.B. (2013). The deep structure of the earth bowels of Western region of Ukraine on the basis of seismic studies and the direction of exploration for oil and gas. Lviv: Tsentr Evropy, 80 p. (in Ukrainian).
Kruglov, S.S., Smirnov, S.E., Spitkovskaya, S.M., Filshtinskiy, L.E., & Khizhnyakov, A.V. (1985). Geodynamics of the Carpathians. Kiev: Nau¬ko¬va Dumka, 136 p. (in Russian).
Pilipenko, V.N., & Verpakhovskaya, A.O. (2003). Features of the migration transformation of the field of refracted waves. Geophysical Journal, 25(1), 42—55 (in Russian).
Sollogub, V.B., Chekunov, A.V., & Kaluygnaya, L.T. (1988). The structure of the lithosphere along the geotravers I, II, V. Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).
Shlapinsky, V.E. (2012). Some problems of the Tectonics of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Pratsi naukovoho tovarystva imeni Shevchenka, ХХХ, 48—67 (in Ukrainian).
Shlapinsky, V.E., Hlushko, V.V., & Kuzovenko, V.V. (2007). Geological map of the Ukrainian Carpathians, scale 1:100 000. Transcarpathian, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Chernivtsi regions of Ukraine. Report of CJSC «Concern Nadra». Ky¬iv: «Nadra Concern» Fund, 228 p. (in Uk¬rai¬¬nian).
Csontos, L., & Vörös, A. (2004). Mesozoic plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian region. Palaeogeography, Palaeo-climatology, Pa¬lae¬oecology, 210(1), 1—56. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.033.
Golonka, J., Pietsch, K., & Marzec, P. (2018). The North European Platform suture zone in Poland. Geology. Geophysics and Environment, 44, 5—16. http://dx.doi.org/10.7494/geol. 2018. 44.1.5.
Hauser, F., Raileanu, V., Fielitz, W., Dinu, C., Lan¬des, M., Bala, A., & Prodehl, C. (2007). Seis¬mic crustal structure between the Tran¬syl¬vanian Basin and the Black Sea, Romania. Tec¬to¬nophysics, 430, 1—25. https://doi.org/10. 1016/ j.tecto.2006.10.005.
Krzywiec, P. (2001). Contrasting tectonic and sedimentary history of the central and eastern parts of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep Basin — results of seismic data interpretation. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 18, 13—38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8172(00)00037-4.
Ludwiniak, M. (2018). Miocene transpression effects at the boundary of Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin and Pieniny Klippen Belt: examples from Polish-Slovakian borderland. Geology, Geophysics and Environment, 44, 91—110. https://doi.org/10.7494/geol.2018.44.1.91.
Nakapelyukh, M., Bubniak, I., Bubniak, A., Jon¬ckheere, R., & Ratschbacher, L. (2018). Ce¬no¬zoic structural evolution, thermal history, and ero¬sion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt. Tectonophysics, 722, 197—209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2017.11.009.
Nakapelyukh, M., Bubniak, I., Yegorova, T., Mu¬rov¬skaya, A., Gintov, O., Shlapinskyi, V., & Vik¬hot, Yu. (2017). Balanced geological cross-section of the outer Ukrainian Carpathians along the PANCAKE profile. Journal of Geodynamics, 108, 13—25. https://doi.org//10.1016/j.jog.2017. 05.005.
Oszczypko, N. (2006). Late Jurassic—Miocene evolution of the Outer Carpathian fold—and thrust belt and its foredeep basin (Western Carpathians, Poland). Geological Quarterly, 50(1), 168—194.
Oszczypko, N., Salata, D., & Krobicki, M. (2012). Early Cretaceous intra-plate volcanism in the Pieniny Klippen Belt — a case study of the Velykyi Kamenets’/Vilkhivchyk (Ukraine) and Biała Woda (Poland) sections. Geological Quarterly, 56(4), 629—648. https://doi.org/10. 7306/gq.1045.
Pilipenko, V.М., Verpakhovska, O.O., Staros¬ten¬ko, V.I., & Pavlenkova, N.I. (2010). Finite-Difference Migration of the Field of Refracted Waves in Studies of the Deep Structure of the Earth’s crust and the Upper Mantle Ba¬sed on the DSS (on the Example of the DOBRE Profile). Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 46, 943—954. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1069351310110042.
Pilipenko, V.М., Verpakhovska, O.O., Staros¬ten¬ko, V.I., & Pavlenkova, N.I. (2011). Wave images of the crustal structure from refractions and wide-angle reflections migration along the DOBRE profile (Dnieper-Donets paleorift). Tectonophysics, 508, 96—105. https://doi.org/ 10. 1016/j.tecto.2010.11.009.
Plašienka, D. (2012). Early stages of structural evolution of the Carpathian Klippen Belt (Slo¬va¬kian Pieniny sector). Mineralia Slovaca, 44, 1—16.
Schmid, S.M., Bernoulli, D., Fügenschuh, B., Ma¬ten¬co, L., Schefer, S. Schuster, R., Tischler, M., & Ustaszewski, K. (2008). The Alpine-Car¬pa¬thian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss Journal of Geosci-ences, 101, 139—183. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00015-008-1247-3.
Starostenko, V., Janik, T., Kolomiyets, K., Czu¬ba, W., Środa, P., Grad, M., Kovacs, I., Ste¬phen¬son, R., Lysynchuk, D., Thybo, H., Ar¬te¬mieva, I.M., Omelchenko, V., Gintov, O., Ku¬tas, R., Gryn, D., Guterch, A., Hegedűs, E., Kom¬minaho, K., Legostaeva, O., Tiira, T., & Tol¬kunov, A. (2013). Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Cra¬ton. Tectonophysics, 608, 1049—1072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tecto.2013.07.008.
Starostenko, V., Janik, T., Mocanu, V., Ste¬phen¬son, R., Yegorova, T. Amashukeli, T., Czuba, W., Śro¬da, P., Murovskaya, A., Kolomiyets, K., Ly¬syn¬chuk, D., Okoń, J., Dragut, A., Omel¬chen¬ko, V., Legostaieva, O., Gryn, D., Mechie, J., & Tolkunov, A. (2020). RomUkrSeis: Seismic model of the crust and upper mantle across the Eastern Carpathians — From the Apu¬se-ni Mountains to the Ukrainian Shield. Tec¬to¬nophysics, 794, 1—28. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.tecto.2020.228620.
Starostenko, V.I., Murovskaya, A.V., Yegorova, T.P., Gintov, O.B., & Amashukeli, T.A. (2022). The relationship of the oil and gas fields of the Forecarpathian region with the regional faults system and deep structure. Geophysical Journal, 44(1), 111—123. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v44i1.253713.
Šlączka, A., Kruglov, S., Golonka, J., Oszczypko, N., & Popadyuk, I. (2006). Geology and hydrocarbon resources of the Outer Carpathians, Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine: general geo¬lo¬gy. In Golonka, J., Picha, F.J. (Eds.), The Car¬pathians and Their Foreland: Geology and Hyd¬ro¬carbon Resources (pp. 221—258). https://doi.org/10.1306/985610M843070.
Verpakhovska, A., Pylypenko, V., Yegorova, T., & Murovskaya, A. (2018). Seismic image of the crust on the PANCAKE profile across the UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS from the migration method. Journal of Geodynamics, 121, 76—87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2018.07.006.
Verpakhovska, O., Pylypenko, V., & Chorna, O. (2021). Features of the seismic migration method in the RomUkrSeis profile data processing. Geoinformatics, 1—14 May 2021, Kyiv, Ukraine, 21058 (pp. 1—4). https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.20215521058.
Zhou, H.-W., Hu, H., Zou, Z., Wo, Y., & Youn, O. (2018). Reverse time migration: A prospect of seismic imaging methodology. Earth-Sci¬en¬ce Reviews, 179, 207—227. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.earscirev.2018.02.008.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).