Association of 5’AMP-activated protein kinase activity with disease duration and HbA1c content in leukocytes in diabetic patients
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Background. 5’AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme that controls the cell energy balance. With energetic stress in the cell and an increase in the AMP concentration, ATP is replaced by AMP in the exchange centers, resulting in the allosteric activation of AMPK by phosphorylation of 172 threonine within alpha subunit of LKB1 complex in response to changes in cell energy or CAMKKβ, which activates intracellular Ca2+. The purpose was to study the activity of the main energy sensor of cells — AMPK in leukocytes in patients taking insulin preparations, metformin, and other hypoglycemic drugs in association with disease duration and glycated hemoglobin content. Materials and methods. The diabetic patients receiving single-drug or combined therapy with insulin and its analogues, metformin, dapagliflozin and sulfonylureas were randomized into 5 groups: the first group — with an HbA1c level close to the norm — 6.9–7.6 %; the second group — 7.6–9.0 %; the third group — > 9 %; the fourth group > 10 %; the fifth group — > 11 %. To determine the amount of phospho-AMPK (p-Thr172), ELISA kits were used. To get the calibration curve for the AMPK determination, a kidney cell culture HEK293T of the human embryonic kidney was used, which is recommended by manufacturer as a positive control. Results. It was shown that with increase of blood HbA1c, the level of AMPK activity in leukocytes gradually decreased. With increase of blood HbA1c, the level of AMPK activity in leukocytes gradually decreased. The activity of AMPK in leukocytes of patients with HbA1c > 11 % was more than 3.5-fold lower compared to the group with 6.9–7.6 % of HbA1c; AMPK activity in leukocytes in patients with disease duration of 20 years was 3-fold lower. Thus, the AMPK activity in leukocytes may be an indicator of diabetic compensation in diabetic patients. Conclusions. With increase of blood HbA1c, the level of p-AMPK in leukocytes gradually decreased. AMPK activity in leukocytes in diabetes patients with disease duration of 20 years was 3-fold lower than in patients with 10-year experience.
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