Vitamin D: new aspects of application, effective doses. The current state of the problem

Main Article Content

I.V. Pankiv


In addition to the classic role of vitamin D in maintaining the normal state of the musculoskeletal system in the last decade, there is evidence that reduced serum concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with a number of extraskeletal diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, thyroid diseases, age-related cognitive decline, dysfunction of the immune and reproductive systems, etc.). Prevention of these diseases is achieved with significantly higher concentrations of 25(OH)D in the serum than those necessary to maintain normal bone tissue, regulate absorption and maintain calcium homeostasis. To ensure the concentration of the circulating form of vitamin D — 25(OH)D in the serum at a level that ensures optimal functioning, you need a higher consumption of this vitamin. Decreased blood concentration of vitamin D (< 30 ng/ml) is observed in 92 % of the adult population of Ukraine, regardless of the season. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are the low efficiency of its endogenous synthesis in the skin due to insufficient insolation and inadequate intake of this vitamin with food. Due to the half-life of vitamin D of about two months, periodic weekly or monthly intake of total doses of cholecalciferol provides the same values in the serum as daily intake. The review of the lite­rature considers the importance of vitamin D deficiency and deficiency in disorders of many systems of the human body and the development of various pathological conditions, which justifies the wider use of methods to correct the status of vitamin D. Despite the need for large-scale randomized clinical trials to determine the use of vitamin D, now there is no doubt that the normalization of the level of 25(OH)D in the serum is required at all age stages of ontogenesis.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pankiv, I. “Vitamin D: New Aspects of Application, Effective Doses. The Current State of the Problem”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), vol. 17, no. 1, Apr. 2021, pp. 38-42, doi:10.22141/2224-0721.17.1.2021.226430.
Literature Review


Cheng YC, Huang YC, Huang WL. The effect of vitamin D supplement on negative emotions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Depress Anxiety. 2020 Jun;37(6):549-564. doi:10.1002/da.23025.

Charoenngam N, Holick MF. Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 15;12(7):2097. doi:10.3390/nu12072097.

Yaribeygi H, Maleki M, Sathyapalan T, et al. The molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D improve glucose homeostasis: A mechanistic review. Life Sci. 2020 Mar 1;244:117305. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117305.

Koivisto O, Hanel A, Carlberg C. Key Vitamin D Target Genes with Functions in the Immune System. Nutrients. 2020 Apr 19;12(4):1140. doi:10.3390/nu12041140.

Amrein K, Scherkl M, Hoffmann M, et al. Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Nov;74(11):1498-1513. doi:10.1038/s41430-020-0558-y.

Lin LY, Smeeth L, Langan S, Warren-Gash C. Distribution of vitamin D status in the UK: a cross-sectional analysis of UK Biobank. BMJ Open. 2021 Jan 6;11(1):e038503. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038503.

Carlson CR Jr, Uriu-Adams JY, Chambers CD, et al. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Ukrainian Women: Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Vitamin D Status. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jan;36(1):44-56. doi:10.1080/07315724.2016.1174091.

Kaminskyi OV, Pankiv VI, Pankiv IV, Afanasyev DE. Vitamin D Content In Population Of Radiologically Contaminated Areas In Chernivtsi Oblast (pilot project). Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol. 2018 Dec;23:442-451. doi:10.33145/2304-8336-2018-23-442-451. (in Ukrainian).

Komisarenko YI, Bobryk MI. Vitamin D Deficiency and Immune Disorders in Combined Endocrine Pathology. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 Oct 9;9:600. doi:10.3389/fendo.2018.00600.

Yisak H, Ewunetei A, Kefale B, et al. Effects of Vitamin D on COVID-19 Infection and Prognosis: A Systematic Review. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021 Jan 7;14:31-38. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S291584.

Bergman P. The link between vitamin D and COVID-19: distinguishing facts from fiction. J Intern Med. 2021 Jan;289(1):131-133. doi:10.1111/joim.13158.

Gennari L. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. In: ASMBR 2020 Annual Meeting Virtual Event. 2020 Sep 11.

Liu N, Sun J, Wang X, Zhang T, Zhao M, Li H. Low vitamin D status is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 2;104:58-64. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.077.

DeLuccia R, Clegg D, Sukumar D. The implications of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 for at-risk populations. Nutr Rev. 2021 Jan 9;79(2):227-234. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa092.

Darling AL, Blackbourn DJ, Ahmadi KR, Lanham-New SA. Very high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in 6433 UK South Asian adults: analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort. Br J Nutr. 2021 Feb 28;125(4):448-459. doi:10.1017/S0007114520002779.

Mele C, Caputo M, Bisceglia A, et al. Immunomodulatory Effects of Vitamin D in Thyroid Diseases. Nutrients. 2020 May 16;12(5):1444. doi:10.3390/nu12051444.

Altieri B, Muscogiuri G, Barrea L, et al. Does vitamin D play a role in autoimmune endocrine disorders? A proof of concept. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Sep;18(3):335-346. doi:10.1007/s11154-016-9405-9.

Mazokopakis EE, Papadomanolaki MG, Tsekouras KC, Evangelopoulos AD, Kotsiris DA, Tzortzinis AA. Is vitamin D related to pathogenesis and treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis? Hell J Nucl Med. 2015 Sep-Dec;18(3):222-7.

Povorozniuk VV, Pankiv IV. Intercommunication between vitamin D deficiency and thyroid hypofunction. Clinical Endocrinology and Endocrine Surgery. 2014;3-4(48):12-16. doi:10.24026/1818-1384.3-4(48).2014.75353. (in Ukrainian).

Pankiv I. Impact of additional cholecalciferol supplementation on the level of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Bolʹ, sustavy, pozvonočnik. 2017;7(3):116-119. doi:10.22141/2224-1507.7.3.2017.116866. (in Ukrainian).

Niroomand M, Fotouhi A, Irannejad N, Hosseinpanah F. Does high-dose vitamin D supplementation impact insulin resistance and risk of development of diabetes in patients with pre-diabetes? A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Feb;148:1-9. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.12.008.

Al-Shoumer KA, Al-Essa TM. Is there a relationship between vitamin D with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus? World J Diabetes. 2015 Jul 25;6(8):1057-64. doi:10.4239/wjd.v6.i8.1057.

Carter SJ, Baranauskas MN, Fly AD. Considerations for Obesity, Vitamin D, and Physical Activity Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2020 Jul;28(7):1176-1177. doi:10.1002/oby.22838.

Feghaly J, Johnson P, Kalhan A. Vitamin D and obesity in adults: a pathophysiological and clinical update. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2020 Jan 2;81(1):1-5. doi:10.12968/hmed.2019.0291.

Jetty V, Glueck CJ, Wang P, et al. Safety of 50,000-100,000 Units of Vitamin D3/Week in Vitamin D-Deficient, Hypercholesterolemic Patients with Reversible Statin Intolerance. N Am J Med Sci. 2016 Mar;8(3):156-62. doi:10.4103/1947-2714.179133.

Noe S, Heldwein S, Pascucchi R, et al. Cholecalciferol 20 000 IU Once Weekly in HIV-Positive Patients with Low Vitamin D Levels: Result from a Cohort Study. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2017 Jul/Aug;16(4):315-320. doi:10.1177/2325957417702487.

Takács I, Tóth BE, Szekeres L, Szabó B, Bakos B, Lakatos P. Randomized clinical trial to comparing efficacy of daily, weekly and monthly administration of vitamin D3. Endocrine. 2017 Jan;55(1):60-65. doi:10.1007/s12020-016-1137-9.

Rothen JP, Rutishauser J, Walter PN, Hersberger KE, Arnet I. Oral intermittent vitamin D substitution: influence of pharmaceutical form and dosage frequency on medication adherence: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2020 Jul 11;21(1):51. doi:10.1186/s40360-020-00430-5.

Cavalier E, Faché W, Souberbielle JC. A Randomised, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Study of Vitamin D3 Supplementation with Different Schemes Based on Multiples of 25,000 IU Doses. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013:327265. doi:10.1155/2013/327265.

Latic N, Erben RG. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease, with Emphasis on Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, and Heart Failure. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 4;21(18):6483. doi:10.3390/ijms21186483.

Nudy M, Krakowski G, Ghahramani M, Ruzieh M, Foy AJ. Vitamin D supplementation, cardiac events and stroke: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2020 May 20;28:100537. doi:10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100537.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>