Social and hygienic characteristics of children from the iodine deficiency region
Main Article Content
Background. Determining the social and hygienic patterns of children’s health is an important scientific and methodological task of pediatrics, the solution of which makes it possible to manage health processes. Natural factors that affect health include iodine deficiency in environmental components. Nowadays in 19 countries, including Ukraine, the issue of iodine deficiency remains relevant. The purpose was to analyze social and hygienic factors in schoolchildren from the iodine deficiency region. Materials and methods. A survey of schoolchildren (n = 1,973) and their parents (n = 655) was conducted, we have examined 397 children aged 10–12 years from 7 districts of the Chernivtsi region. The concentration of inorganic iodine in a single urine portion was determined in 197 children, salt samples were tested using a rapid test. Results. In 2017, 56.1 % of parents-respondents did not know about the problem of iodine deficiency, and in 2019 — 28.2 %. Out of 397 salt samples taken from households, the presence of iodine was found in 133 (33.5 %) and 45 (41.3 %) of 109 samples taken from trade establishments. Of 509 samples labeled as iodized salt, only 35 % contained iodine and 65 % did not meet the requirements. The hygienic assessment of the balance of children’s diet revealed significant violations that may contribute to the development of iodine deficiency. Of 1,973 respondents, 15.7 % eat natural products. A disharmonious style of family upbringing dominated, which changes the emotional and mental state of a child. The median ioduria in the examined population is in general 58.1 ± 3.2 μg/l, the frequency of goiter among prepubertal children of Bukovinian region is 17.2 %. Two or more concomitant diseases, asthenic, neurotic and affective disorders were detected in 75.5 % of schoolchildren. Conclusions. Low public awareness, sale of iodized salt on the consumer market, which does not meet hygienic standards for iodine content, low motivation to use iodized salt on the background of iodine deficiency, even mild, are additional risk factors for iodine deficiency in schoolchildren of Chernivtsi region.
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