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Background. Gallbladder polyps are usually benign lesions originating from the mucosa and are usually detected incidentally during radiological examinations or after cholecystectomy. Gallbladder polyps are common and may have malignant risk. In this study, it was investigated whether metabolic syndrome (MS) is a risk factor for gallbladder polyps. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in patients with gallbladder polyps. Materials and methods. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study. We investigated the age, gender and past medical history of 90 adults (45 with polyps, 45 without polyps). Body height and weight, body mass index, waist circumference and laboratory data were obtained from the hospital data processing system. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) MS diagnostic criterion were used for the diagnosis of MS. Results. 51.1 % (n = 46) of the subjects participating in the study were female and 48.8 % (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 58.79 ± 15.70 years. MS was found in 56.7 % (n = 51) of the cases according to the criteria of NCEP-ATP III and, in 64.4 % (n = 58) of the cases according to the IDF criteria. In patients with a gallbladder polyp, MS was detected in 55.55 % according to the criteria of NCEP-ATP III and in 66.66 % according to the IDF criteria. The rates of MS were not similar in the gallbladder polyp group and control group (p > 0.01). Abdominal obesity was found to be a risk factor for the development of gallbladder polyp (odds ratio: 14.23, 95% CI: 1.751–15.722; p < 0.01). Although it was not statistically significant, low HDL and hypertension were detected approximately 2 times higher in patients with gallbladder polyps than in the control group. Conclusions. While MS is not associated with the development of gallbladder polyp, obesity is seen as a sole risk factor.
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