Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of interaction between coronavirus disease 2019 and thyroid
Main Article Content
In patients who were not previously diagnosed with any thyroid conditions, the scenario of COVID-19 related anomalies of the thyroid may include either: a process of central thyroid-stimulating hormone disturbances via virus‑related hypophysitis; an atypical type of subacute thyroiditis which is connected to the virus spread or to excessive cytokine production including a destructive process with irreversible damage to the gland or low triiodothyronine syndrome (non-thyroidal illness syndrome) which is not specifically related to the COVID‑19 infection, but which is associated with a very severe illness status. This review aimed to investigate thyroid changes resulted from the COVID-19 infection. Ongoing assessment of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will reveal more information on coronavirus-induced thyroid conditions. Routine thyroid assays performed in patients with severe infection/acute phase of COVID-19 are encouraged to detect thyrotoxicosis. After recovery, thyroid function should be assessed to identify potential hypothyroidism. There remain unanswered questions related to the predictive value of interleukin-6 in infected patients, especially in cases of cytokine storm, and the necessity of thyroid hormone replacement in subjects with hypophysitis-related central hypothyroidism.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
Parolin M, Parisotto M, Zanchetta F, Sartorato P, De Menis E. Coronaviruses and Endocrine System: a Systematic Review on Evidences and Shadows. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Sep 5. doi: 10.2174/1871530320666200905123332.
Șandru F, Carsote M, Petca RC, et al. COVID-19-related thyroid conditions (Review). Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):756. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10188.
Young MJ, Clyne CD, Chapman KE. Endocrine aspects of ACE2 regulation: RAAS, steroid hormones and SARS-CoV-2. J Endocrinol. 2020 Nov;247(2):R45-R62. doi: 10.1530/JOE-20-0260.
Ye Q, Wang B, Mao J. The pathogenesis and treatment of the `Cytokine Storm' in COVID-19. J Infect. 2020 Jun;80(6):607-613. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.037.
Nehme M, Braillard O, Alcoba G, et al. COVID-19 Symptoms: Longitudinal Evolution and Persistence in Outpatient Settings. Ann Intern Med. 2021 May;174(5):723-725. doi: 10.7326/M20-5926.
Shekhar S, Wurth R, Kamilaris CDC, et al. Endocrine Conditions and COVID-19. Horm Metab Res. 2020 Jul;52(7):471-484. doi: 10.1055/a-1172-1352.
Caron P. Thyroid disorders and SARS-CoV-2 infection: From pathophysiological mechanism to patient management. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2020 Oct;81(5):507-510. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2020.09.001.
Gorini F, Bianchi F, Iervasi G. COVID-19 and Thyroid: Progress and Prospects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 11;17(18):6630. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186630.
Gavriatopoulou M, Korompoki E, Fotiou D, et al. Organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Clin Exp Med. 2020 Nov;20(4):493-506. doi: 10.1007/s10238-020-00648-x.
Khoo B, Tan T, Clarke SA, Mills EG, et al. Thyroid Function Before, During, and After COVID-19. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 23;106(2):e803-e811. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa830.
Pashkovska NV. Pseudothyroid dysfunction in clinical practice: how to avoid diagnostic errors. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2018;14(4):344-353. doi: 10.22141/2224-0718.104.22.1688.140188. (in Ukrainian).
Chen M, Zhou W, Xu W. Thyroid Function Analysis in 50 Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study. Thyroid. 2021 Jan;31(1):8-11. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0363.
Muller I, Cannavaro D, Dazzi D, et al. SARS-CoV-2-related atypical thyroiditis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Sep;8(9):739-741. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30266-7.
Brancatella A, Ricci D, Cappellani D, et al. Is Subacute Thyroiditis an Underestimated Manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection? Insights From a Case Series. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Oct 1;105(10):dgaa537. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa537.
Mattar SAM, Koh SJQ, Rama Chandran S, Cherng BPZ. Subacute thyroiditis associated with COVID-19. BMJ Case Rep. 2020 Aug 25;13(8):e237336. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-237336.
Urbanovych AM, Laniush FV, Lishchuk OZ, Kozlovska KYu. COVID-19: a new etiological factor of Graves’ disease? Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2020;16(7):593-597. doi: 10.22141/2224-0722.214.171.1240.219014. (in Ukrainian).
Asfuroglu Kalkan E, Ates I. A case of subacute thyroiditis associated with Covid-19 infection. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1173-1174. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01316-3.
Ippolito S, Dentali F, Tanda ML. SARS-CoV-2: a potential trigger for subacute thyroiditis? Insights from a case report. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1171-1172. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01312-7.
Francisco Javier López Maldonado, Rene Arturo Cota Arreola. Biopsy Confirmed Subacute Thyroiditis Associated With COVID-19. Journal of the Endocrine Society. 2021;5(Suppl 1):A922. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.1884.
Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Esposito K. Endocrine complications of COVID-19: what happens to the thyroid and adrenal glands? J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1169-1170. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01311-8.
Lania A, Sandri MT, Cellini M, Mirani M, Lavezzi E, Mazziotti G. Thyrotoxicosis in patients with COVID-19: the THYRCOV study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2020 Oct;183(4):381-387. doi: 10.1530/EJE-20-0335.
Ruggeri RM, Campennì A, Deandreis D, et al. SARS-COV-2-related immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders: facts and perspectives. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021 Jun 2:1-23. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1932467.
Pal R. COVID-19, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and clinical implications. Endocrine. 2020 May;68(2):251-252. doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02325-1.
Speer G, Somogyi P. Thyroid complications of SARS and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Endocr J. 2021 Feb 28;68(2):129-136. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0443.
Djakpo DK, Wang Z, Zhang R, Chen X, Chen P, Antoine MMLK. Blood routine test in mild and common 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) patients. Biosci Rep. 2020 Aug 28;40(8):BSR20200817. doi: 10.1042/BSR20200817.
Shams PN. High-Dose Oral Methylprednisolone for the Management of Severe Active Thyroid Eye Disease During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020 Jul/Aug;36(4):418-419. doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000001787.
Kaiser UB, Mirmira RG, Stewart PM. Our Response to COVID-19 as Endocrinologists and Diabetologists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 1;105(5):dgaa148. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa148.
Velayoudom FL, Alwis Wijewickrama PS, Ranathunga HI, Somasundaram N. Endocrine vigilance in COVID-19. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020 May;70(Suppl 3)(5):S83-S86. doi: 10.5455/JPMA.16.
van Gerwen M, Alsen M, Little C, et al. Outcomes of Patients With Hypothyroidism and COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Aug 18;11:565. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00565.
Kumar A, Arora A, Sharma P, et al. Clinical Features of COVID-19 and Factors Associated with Severe Clinical Course: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SSRN [Preprint]. 2020:3566166. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3566166.
Iughetti L, Trevisani V, Cattini U, et al. COVID-19 and Type 1 Diabetes: Concerns and Challenges. Acta Biomed. 2020 Sep 7;91(3):e2020033. doi: 10.23750/abm.v91i3.10366.
Kalra S, Mittal S. COVID-19 and diabetes: Covidiabetology. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020 Jun;70(6):954-955.
Isidori AM, Arnaldi G, Boscaro Mб et al. COVID-19 infection and glucocorticoids: update from the Italian Society of Endocrinology Expert Opinion on steroid replacement in adrenal insufficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1141-1147. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01266-w.
Kaminskyi OV, Pankiv VI, Pankiv IV, Afanasyev DE. Vitamin d content in population of radiologically contaminated areas in chernivtsi oblast (pilot project). Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol. 2018 Dec;23:442-451. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2018-23-442-451.
Weir EK, Thenappan T, Bhargava M, Chen Y. Does vitamin D deficiency increase the severity of COVID-19? Clin Med (Lond). 2020 Jul;20(4):e107-e108. doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0301.
Montesinos MDM, Pellizas CG. Thyroid Hormone Action on Innate Immunity. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jun 4;10:350. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00350.