Main Article Content
Obesity remains a serious health problem in all countries due to its prevalence and the development of significant health consequences associated with high morbidity and mortality. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.5 billion adults in the modern world are overweight. According to domestic studies, about 40 % of the population of Ukraine is overweight and 25 % is obese. The literature review focuses on the problem of obesity in the peri- and postmenopausal periods. Because adipose tissue is the site of conversion of bioactive estrogens from androgenic precursors, it could be assumed that obese women should be less likely to develop symptoms of menopausal disorders such as vascular disorders, osteoporosis. Obesity affects ovulation, oocyte maturation, processes in the endometrium, and the process of implantation. Obesity impairs reproductive function not only through the mechanisms of ovulation disorders: reduced fertility is observed in patients with regular ovulatory cycles. Other mechanisms (the complex influence of psychosocial factors; the level of proinflammatory cytokines secreted by adipose tissue is increased in obesity) have not only a direct embryotoxic effect, but also limit the invasion of the trophoblast, disrupting its normal formation. Excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to local activation of prothrombinase and as a result to thrombosis, trophoblast infarction, its detachment and, ultimately, early miscarriage. The relationship between obesity and reproductive dysfunction has long been proven. At the same time, weight loss is known to improve this function in overweight and obese women. It is especially important that women with this pathology, who visit specialist physicians, receive the necessary recommendations and support aimed at weight loss.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
Wang Y, Beydoun MA, Min J, Xue H, Kaminsky LA, Cheskin LJ. Has the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity levelled off in the United States? Trends, patterns, disparities, and future projections for the obesity epidemic. Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Jun 1;49(3):810-823. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz273.
Dereń K, Wyszyńska J, Nyankovskyy S, et al. Secular Trends of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from Ukraine. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Mar 23;18(6):3302. doi:10.3390/ijerph18063302.
Kanguru L, McCaw-Binns A, Bell J, Yonger-Coleman N, Wilks R, Hussein J. The burden of obesity in women of reproductive age and in pregnancy in a middle-income setting: a population based study from Jamaica. PLoS One. 2017 Dec 13;12(12):e0188677. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188677.
Zhou X, Yang X. Association between obesity and oligomenorrhea or irregular menstruation in Chinese women of childbearing age: a cross-sectional study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2020 Dec;36(12):1101-1105. doi:10.1080/09513590.2020.1803823.
Xu H, Li PH, Barrow TM, et al. Obesity as an effect modifier of the association between menstrual abnormalities and hypertension in young adult women: Results from Project ELEFANT. PLoS One. 2018 Nov 28;13(11):e0207929. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207929.
Ko KM, Han K, Chung YJ, Yoon KH, Park YG, Lee SH. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2017 Jun;32(2):248-256. doi:10.3803/EnM.2017.32.2.248.
Kazemi M, Jarrett BY, Vanden Brink H, et al. Obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism mediate the link between poor diet quality and ovarian dysmorphology in reproductive-aged women. Nutrients. 2020 Jun 30;12(7):1953. doi:10.3390/nu12071953.
Atteia HH, Alzahrani S, El-Sherbeeny NA, et al. Evening primrose oil ameliorates hyperleptinemia and reproductive hormone disturbances in obese female rats: impact on estrus cyclicity. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Jan 30;10:942. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00942.
Bellefontaine N, Chachlaki K, Parkash J, et al. Leptin-dependent neuronal NO signaling in the preoptic hypothalamus facilitates reproduction. J Clin Invest. 2014 Jun;124(6):2550-2559. doi:10.1172/JCI65928.
Kruszyńska A, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Jeske W, Zgliczyński W. Proinsulin, adiponectin and hsCRP in reproductive age women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - the effect of metformin treatment. Endokrynol Pol. 2014;65(1):2-10. doi:10.5603/EP.2014.0001.
Tena-Sempere M. Interaction between energy homeostasis and reproduction: central effects of leptin and ghrelin on the reproductive axis. Horm Metab Res. 2013 Dec;45(13):919-927. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1355399.
Zhang W, Lei Z, Su J, Chen S. Expression of ghrelin in the porcine hypothalamo-pituitary-ovary axis during the estrous cycle. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008 Dec;109(1-4):356-367. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.12.020.
Zhang D, Yang X, Li J, Yu J, Wu X. Effect of hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance on endocrine, metabolic and fertility outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing ovulation induction. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019 Sep;91(3):440-448. doi:10.1111/cen.14050.
De Wilde MA, Goverde AJ, Veltman-Verhulst SM, et al. Insulin action in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to gestational diabetes. Hum Reprod. 2015 Jun;30(6):1447-1453. doi:10.1093/humrep/dev072.
Tremellen K, Wilkinson D, Savulescu J. Should obese women's access to assisted fertility treatment be limited? A scientific and ethical analysis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Oct;57(5):569-574. doi:10.1111/ajo.12600.
Santoro N, Lasley B, McConnell D, et al. Body size and ethnicity are associated with menstrual cycle alterations in women in the early menopausal transition: The Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2622-2631. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031578.
Best D, Avenell A, Bhattacharya S. How effective are weight-loss interventions for improving fertility in women and men who are overweight or obese? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence. Hum Reprod Update. 2017 Nov 1;23(6):681-705. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx027.
Paulson M, Sahlin L, Hirschberg AL. progesterone receptors and proliferation of the endometrium in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome - a lifestyle intervention study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Apr 1;102(4):1244-1253. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-3155.
Payenok OS, Payenok AV, Pankiv IV,Kostiv MO. Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in pregnant women and women in labour with diffuse toxic goiter. World of Medicine and Biology. 2019;2(68):85-91. doi:10.26724/2079-8334-2019-2-68-85-91. (in Ukrainian).
Semenyna GB, Pankiv VI, Pashkovska NV, Korytko OO, Pankiv IV. Ovarial factors in the pathogenesis of chronic anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Problems of Endocrine Pathology. 2020;71(1):65-71. doi:10.21856/j-PEP.2020.1.09. (in Ukrainian).