Evaluation of Molecular Biological Indicators of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes inPatients with Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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Detection of cell death by flow cytometry is commonly used in modern diagnostics, but is not enough studied in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Objective: to assess the death of peripheral blood cells, the distribution in cell cycle and the level of micronuclei by flow cytometry in patients with type 2 DM with and without distal sensorimotor neuropathy.
Materials and methods. The study involved 176 patients with type 2 DM and 67 relatively healthy individuals. In both groups, we have determined the death of peripheral blood leukocytes, cells with micronuclei and the nature of cell distribution in the cell cycle by flow cytometry. Patients with type 2 DM were examined for diagnosis of diabetic sensorimotor peripheral polyneuropathy (DSPN). The severity of DSPN has been assessed using TSS (Total Symptom Score), the scale of features that make up the so-called Neuropathy Dysabi-lity Score (NDS), and according to electromyography. Indicators of cell death in patients with type 2 DM were also analyzed in terms of age of the patients, duration of the disease and the degree of compensation. For the analysis, Statistica 10 software package has been used.
Results. A direct correlation between the percentage of cells with signs of apoptosis and the number of cells with micronuclei has been revealed that allows the use of both measures as a diagnostic criterion of common pathological changes in the body. Statistically significant differences in cell death were detected when comparing the groups with DM duration up to 10 years and 10 years or more. Also, we have found a direct correlation between the percentage of cells with apoptosis signs and duration of DM.
Conclusions. The level of apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes and the number of cells with micronuclei increases with increa-sing duration of DM type 2, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic distal polypolyneuropathy, as well as DM compensation, the patient’s age. Detection of apoptosis and micronucleus test in peripheral blood leukocytes may serve as integral marker of pathological changes in the body in DM type 2, but not in diabetic polyneuropathy. Distribution of peripheral blood cells in the cell cycle in patients with type 2 DM is not substantially influenced by the pre-sence or absence of polyneuropathy.
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