Hemophthalmia after surgical treatment of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


  • S.S. Lytvynenko Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, Ukraine




diabetic retinopathy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pars plana vitrectomy, postoperative hemophthalmiaм


Background. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), vitreous hemorrhage is one of the most common complications after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and ranges from 12 to 63 %. The study was aimed to analyze the frequency and causes of the development of hemophthalmia after surgical treatment of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. The study involved 118 patients (118 eyes) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and DR, who were divided into three groups: the first group — with initial non-proliferative DR (NPDR; 28 eyes), the second group — with moderate to severe NPDR (49 eyes) and the third group — with proliferative DR (РDR; 41 eyes). The age of patients ranged from 44 to 84 years, men — 52 (44.1 %), women — 66 (55.9 %). The study did not include the patients with severe PDR and tractional retinal detachment or massive hemorrhage that required silicone oil tamponade of the vitreal cavity. All patients underwent closed subtotal vitrectomy 25G with panretinal laser photocoagulation and tamponade with an air-gas C3F8 mixture or the operation was completed with BSS plus solution injected into the vitreal cavity. Patients were examined based on a standard protocol of clinical and ophthalmological studies. Results. Within three months after vitrectomy, 33.1 % of patients developed postoperative hemophthalmia, which happened more often in РDR (39.0 %). In most cases (71.4 %), the preoperative hemophthalmia in РDR was accompanied by the development of postoperative hemophthalmia. Gender did not significantly impact the incidence of postoperative hemophthalmia. Patients with hemophthalmia were 9.3 years older than patients without hemophthalmia (p < 0.001), which affected both men and women equally. Patients with hemophthalmia had a longer history of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to those wi­thout it (three years; p = 0.007), which was confirmed for men: men with hemophthalmia had a longer history of type 2diabetes mellitus than those without hemophthalmia (seven years; p = 0.026). Elevated blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and a high score on the ETDRS scale are the risk factors for the development of postoperative hemophthalmos in patients with РDR. Conclusions. A study within three months after PPV in patients with DR and type 2 diabetes mellitus found that 33.1 % of patients developed postoperative hemophthalmia, which occurred more often in РDR (39.0 %). In most cases (71.4 %), the preoperative hemophthalmos in РDR was accompanied by the development of postoperative hemophthalmia. The risk factors for postoperative hemophthalmia after vitrectomy in type 2 diabetes mellitus and DR were age and diabetes duration, and for РDR — the presence of preoperative hemophthalmia, increased blood glycated hemoglobin, and a high score on the ETDRS scale.


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Clinical Ophthalmology