Modern view on the etiopathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and the role of molecular genetic determinants in it

Authors

  • N.V. Malachkova Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • Mohammad Mashhour Mohammad Masa’deh Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • Osama Mohammad Miteb Al-Jarrah Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • H.P. Liudkevych Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • D.S. Sukhan Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine, Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2309-8147.9.3.2021.247905

Keywords:

age-related macular degeneration, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, CFH, TNF, HTRA1, VEGFA, review

Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration mainly affects the elderly and is one of the most common causes of rapidly progressive vision loss. Over more than 150 years of research, the scientific community has gone from understanding the macroscopic picture of the lesion, presumable identification of drusen as the main morphological manifestation of nosology, to detailed classifications and determine the role of genetic determinants in the etiopathogenesis of the disease — high specificity, the possibility of preventive analysis, and much unclear in the field of genetic diagnosis of eye diseases determine the accurate attention of specialized research groups to the early diagnosis using genetic analysis. The review article was aimed to systematize the information about possible links in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and identify potential polymorphisms that can initiate and modulate the activity of these links. During the study, we could find out five main mechanisms of damage to the vascular membrane of the eye itself, which are affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The hig­hest affinity was shown by genetic variants of separate sites of CFH (rs1061170), HTRA1 (rs11200638), TNF (rs1800629), VEGFA (rs2010963). Literature data obtained from foreign and national sources indexed by Scopus, Web of Science databases, in particular for the last 5 years, pay special attention to these areas as potential predictors or modifiers of pathological processes involved in the process of macular degeneration. Despite the large number of studies examining the predisposition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of age-related macular degeneration to stop the spread of vision loss, only a few issues are understood thoroughly. Considering the successful cases of application of biological and gene therapy for the management of such patients, we see new horizons in the detailed study of molecular interactions that underlie the pathology. The review confirms the active role of polymorphisms in one of the most relevant pathological processes of the human eye.

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Published

2021-12-29

Issue

Section

Clinical Ophthalmology