The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children with diarrhea in Donetsk region, Ukraine
Keywords:children, cryptosporidiosis, oocyst excretion, specific immunoglobulins
AbstractAn urgent task is to reduce the social and medical burden of protozoal intestinal diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium. This justifies the need to study their prevalence among high-risk populations, which also include children. To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in Donetsk region (Ukraine), a targeted survey was conducted in 295 children (under the age of 17) with acute intestinal infection, which was clinically manifested by watery diarrhea. According to the results of microscopy of fecal smears (n = 295), concentrated (with formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation in the fecal concentrator Mini Parasep® SF) and stained (by a modified Ziehl-Neelsen method), the prevalence of cryptosporidium oocyst excretion (OEP) was 4.2 %. All detected oocysts had characteristic morphological and tinctorial properties and were identified by polymerase chain reaction as C.parvum. The presence frequency and titers of specific Ig∑, IgG, IgM and IgA in the blood serum of children (n = 78) were determined in the indirect immune fluorescence reaction with POAgCrypto diagnosticum (purified oocysts of the regional strain C.parvum LNLEID 3/2018, fixed on the surface of the slides). The seroprevalence index of cryptosporidiosis in the cohort of children surveyed reached 21.8 % (with a threshold titer of specific IgG 1 : 16) and exceeded the OEP found in them (p ≤ 0.05). Taking into account the indicators of OEP and seroprevalence index, Donetsk region should be considered as area with relatively low prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children.
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