Results of isolation and genotyping of measles viruses that circulated in 2012–2017 in the Odesa region
Keywords:measles, laboratory diagnostics, polymerase chain reaction, isolation of circulating virus strains, genotyping
Background. The circulation of different strains of the measles virus is closely related to the region and the incidence rate since circulating strains can change during epidemic outbreaks and in interepidemic periods. According to the WHO, the B3 strain is most common during outbreaks worldwide. Therefore, typing of circulating strains of measles virus, especially during an epidemic outbreak, is an important process, including for predicting the development of an epidemic. The study was aimed to identify and determine the genotype of measles virus types that circulate in Ukraine during 2012–2019. Materials and methods. Materials of the reporting documentation of the State Institution “Odessa Regional Laboratory Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine” in the Odessa region during 2012–2019 were used and analyzed. Materials from patients with suspected measles were used for molecular biological, genetic, analytical, and statistical approaches investigation. Following the standard WHO protocol for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, circulating measles virus strains were isolated from the patient in a special culture of Vero/SLAM cells. Measles virus RNA was isolated from the resulting virus-containing material after cultivation and RT-PCR was performed. The resulting cDNA was sent for genotyping, which was carried out at the WHO reference laboratory for the diagnosis of measles and rubella in Luxembourg (WHO RRL). Results. Twenty strains of measles virus from 45 samples (urine and nasopharyngeal swabs) from patients diagnosed with measles were isolated during 2012–2014. Virus isolation was not carried out in 2015–2016 due to isolated cases of the disease. Twenty-four virus strains from 164 samples were isolated in 2017. Conclusions. The results obtained at the State Institution “Odessa Regional Laboratory Center” demonstrated that during the interepidemic period of 2012–2014, the D4 genotype circulated in the region. But since 2017, when there was an increas of cases associated with a new epidemic outbreak, B3, genetic line MVs/Kabul.AFG/20.2014/3 B3 mainly circulates in the region of southern Ukraine. As you can see, these data completely coincide with the data about circulating genotypes that were found at a certain time in the European Region, according to the data from the literature.
Rota P.A., Moss W.J., Takeda M., de Swart R.L., Thompson K.M., Goodson J.L. Measles. Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers. 2016 Jul 14. 2. 16049. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2016.49. PMID: 27411684.
Griffin D.E., Lin W.H.W. and Nelson A.N. Understanding the causes and consequences of measles virus persistence [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research 2018. 7(F1000 Faculty Rev). 237. Режим доступу: https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.12094.1
Гридіна Т.Л. Кір: збудник, особливості патогенезу, можливі ускладнення, профілактика. Одеський медичний журнал. 2018. № 6. С. 69-74. Режим доступу: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Omj_2018_6_16
Griffin D.E. Measles virus. In: Knipe D.M., Howley P.M., editors. Fields Virology. Volume 6. Wolters Kluwer. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2013. Р. 1042-1069.
Naim H.Y. Measles virus: A pathogen, vaccine, and a vector. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2015. № 11(1). Р. 21-26. Available from: http://doi.org/10.4161/hv.34298
Griffin D.E. Measles Vaccine. Viral Immunology. 2018. Аhead of print. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2017.0143
Holzmann H., Hengel H., Tenbusch M., Doerr H.W. Millennium Development Goals. United Nations. Eradication of measles: Remaining challenges. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 2016. 205. Р. 201-208.
Benecke O., DeYoung S.E. Anti-Vaccine Decision-Making and Measles Resurgence in the United States. Glob. Pediatr. Health. 2019 Jul 24. 6. 2333794X19862949. doi: 10.1177/2333794X19862949. PMID: 31384629; PMCID: PMC6657116.
Cutts F.T., Lessler J., Metcalf C.J. Measles elimination: Progress, challenges and implications for rubella control: Expert Rev. Vaccines. 2013. 12. Р. 917-932. WHO. Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan 2012-2020 [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2017 Mar 5]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44855/1/9789241503396_eng.pdf.
World Health Organization. Measles fact sheet no. 286. Updated February 2019. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/
Ristić M., Milošević V., Medić S., et al. Sero-epidemiological study in prediction of the risk groups for measles outbreaks in Vojvodina, Serbia. PLoS ONE. 2019. 14(5). e0216219. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216219
Ledd C., Cinà D., Garozzo S.F., et al. Vaccine-preventable disease in healthcare workers in Sicily (Italy): seroprevalence against measles. Future Microbiology. 2019. Published Online: 12 Jun 2019. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2018-0263
Гончаров В.О., Котлик Л.С., Скопенко А.В., Грузевський О.А., Гридіна Т.Л. Епідемічні показники щодо кору в Одеській області. Актуальна інфектологія. 2019. 7(2). Available from: http://www.mif-ua.com/archive/article/47270. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.7.2.2019.161152
th meeting of the European RVC, 12-14 June 2019. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/413236/8th-RVC-Report.pdf.
WHO. Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan 2012–2020 [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2017 Mar 5]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44855/1/9789241503396_eng.pdf
Kalinichenko, S.V., Melentyeva, K.V., Toryanik, I.I., et al. Genetic monitoring of endemic measles virus circulation in European countries. Annals of mechnikov institute. 2020. 2. Р. 57-70. Available from: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3885184
Laksono B.M., de Vries R.D., McQuaid S., et al. Measles Virus Host Invasion and Pathogenesis. Viruses. 2016. № 8(8). P. 210. Available from: doi: 10.3390/v8080210
Randall R.E., Griffin D.E. Within host RNA virus persistence: mechanisms and consequences. Curr. Opin. Virol. 2017. № 23. Р. 35-42.
WHO. Policy statement on data sharing by WHO in the context of public health emergencies (as of 13 April 2016). Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. 2016. 91(18). P. 237-40.
Lekana-Douki S.E., Sir-Ondo-Enguier P.N., Banga-Mve-Ella O., et al. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of the re-emerging measles virus among children and adults in the Haut-Ogooue, Gabon BMC. Infectious Diseases. 2019. 19. P. 90.
Zaidi S.S.Z., Hameed A., Rana M.S., et al. Identification of measles virus genotype B3 associated with outbreaks in Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013–2015. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2018. 11 (4). P. 540-545. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2017.10.011.
Deng Xiuying, Hu Ying, Lu Peishan, Zhou Ming-hao, Guo Hongxiong. The first outbreak of measles virus caused by imported genotype D8 in Jiangsu province of China. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2019. 23(1). P. 66-69. Epub May 20, 2019. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2019.02.003.
Wong C.H., Chuang S.K., Lam W.H., Lam H.Y., Lam T.S., Ho L.M.R., et al. Investigation and control of a measles outbreak at the Hong Kong International Airport, 2019. Western Pac. Surveill Response J. 2020. 10(2). Available from: doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2019.10.2.007
Cheng W.Y., Wang H.C., Wu H.S., Liu, M.T. Measles surveillance in Taiwan, 2012–2014: changing epidemiology, immune response, and circulating genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 2016. 88. Р. 746-753. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24392
Hartoyo E., Wiyatno A., Jaya U.A., Ma’roef C.N., Monagin C., Myint K.S., Safari D. Occurrence of measles genotype D8 during a 2014 outbreak in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia Hartoyo. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2016. 54. Р. 1-3. Available from: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.10.029
Miyoshi M., Komagome R., Yamaguchi H., et al. Detection of Measles Virus Genotypes B3, D4, D5, D8, and H1 in the Surveillance System in Hokkaido, Japan, 2006-2015, the Last Decade toward the Elimination. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2017. 70(3). P. 317-319. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2016.253
Komabayashi K., Seto J., Tanaka S., et al. The largest measles outbreak, including 38 modified measles and 22 typical measles cases in its elimination era in Yamagata, Japan, 2017. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 2018. 71. Р. 413-418. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2018.083
Seki F., Miyoshi M., Ikeda T., et al. Nationwide Molecular Epidemiology of Measles Virus in Japan Between 2008 and 2017. Front. Microbiol. 2019. 10. 1470. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01470
Richard J.-L., Mäusezahl M., Basler S., Eckert N. Approaching measles elimination in Switzerland: changing epidemiology 2007–2018. Swiss Med. Wkly. 2019. 149. w20102. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2019.20102
Savicka O., Kolupajeva T., Aniscenko A., et al. Measles virus genotypes circulating in Latvia, 2011–2018. Available from: https://express.converia.de/frontend/index.php?page_id=10122&additions_conferenceschedule_action=detail&additions_conferenceschedule_controller=paperList&pid=23127&hash=eabff76cae018d35c35277d7eab285ae796e3199bbc67a09fa898a545396c84b
Эпидемиологическая оценка отдельных заболеваний, предотвращаемых вакцинацией. Эпидемиологическая справка ВОЗ. 2018. № 1. Режим доступа: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/371434/epibrief-1-2018-rus.pdf?ua=1.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.