Modern aspects of diagnosis and treatment of gastric neuroendocrine tumors
Keywords:gastric neuroendocrine tumors, gastric carcinoid, chronic atrophic gastritis, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, sporadic carcinoid
AbstractGastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, their proportion is around 7–8 % of all NETs, although in recent years, the incidence is increasing, which may be due to improvements in diagnostic methods. Thanks to magnetic resonance imaging, computed and positron emission tomography, the use of modern radiopharmaceuticals, it is possible to detect and localize NETs. Surgical resection remains the most effective treatment for neuroendocrine tumors, the purpose of which is to remove the primary tumor and, if present, metastases. The following conservative treatment and locoregional methods are successfully used: intramuscular injections of long-acting somatostatin analogues, radiofrequency thermal ablation, embolization, and local radiation therapy. Gastric NETs require further researches: better understanding of the molecular genetic pathways that affect the development of all types of lesions is needed, as well as further development of pharmacological agents, randomized controlled trials of existing medicines, additional clinical studies to determine the best treatment strategies. The increasing frequency of gastric neuroendocrine tumors makes these questions even more relevant. This article on this issue is based on data from a large number of prospective and uncontrolled studies, clinical trials of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, using the PubMed search engine.
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