Current possibilities of immunotherapy for melanoma: a review of the literature
Keywords:cutaneous melanoma, advanced and metastatic forms, immunotherapy, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, review
Cutaneous melanoma is a neuroectodermal malignant tumor with high metastatic potential and low chemotherapy response rates that worsens the prognosis of patients with advanced and non-resectable forms. This article provides an overview of recent clinical studies on new immunosuppressive drugs: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, the use of which is a promising treatment for cutaneous melanoma that cannot be treated surgically. The purpose of our work was to analyze studies on the anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy effectiveness in advanced cutaneous melanoma, comparing it with traditional chemotherapy and other targeted therapies and immunotherapy. Materials and interpretations of clinical trials CheckMate 037, CheckMate 067, KEYNOTE-001, KEYNOTE-002, KEYNOTE-006, KEYNOTE-054; data from NCBI, PubMed, NCCN, ESMO, FDA, NCBI, official recommendations for anti-PD-1 immunotherapy drugs were analyzed. PD-1 inhibitor therapy shows better results and prognostic data for the advanced cutaneous melanoma treatment than traditional chemotherapy. Adverse events related to treatment, including stages III and IV, are less commonly reported with PD-1 inhibitor treatment than with chemotherapy. The use of PD-1 inhibitors shows good results in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with brain metastases, including those requiring systemic corticosteroid therapy. It is advisable to use anti-PD-1 therapy as a first line in both non-resectable and metastatic forms of cutaneous melanoma and in the adjuvant mode in patients with stages ІІІ and IV of disease.
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