Cancer immunotherapy: current opportunities and perspectives
Keywords:cancer immunotherapy, cytokines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, adaptive T-cell therapy, review
Cancer immunotherapy is a relatively new and promising method of treating neoplasms. Understanding the antigen-directed cytotoxicity of T-lymphocytes has become one of the central directions in involving the immune system in the fight against cancer. Basic research in this area has led to the invention of checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive T-cell therapy, and cancer vaccines. Cytokines can enhance the action of T-lymphocytes for their ability to directly stimulate effector and stromal cells in tumor focus and enhance recognition of tumor cells by cytotoxic effector cells. They were the first in cancer immunotherapy and remain relevant to this day. Today, immunotherapy is an effective treatment for most malignant tumors, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, liver, stomach, bladder, cervical cancer, some types of breast cancer, lymphoma, etc. However, immunotherapy of some malignant tumors is ineffective, therefore, the development of new and improvement of existing immunotherapy agents is actively underway, and there is a hope that the indications for its use will expand. For this purpose, this review discusses the principles of action of various classes of immunotherapeutic anticancer agents, namely cytokines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and adaptive T-cell therapy. The work highlights their indications, efficacy and toxicity from the use of each class of drugs, as well as the prospects for the development of immunotherapeutic anticancer drugs.
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