DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/2313-8416.2015.42535

General principles of pathogenetically substantiated combined therapy of chronic acquired toxoplasmosis

Світлана Сергіївна Коцина

Abstract


Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, dysfunction of liver and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function, in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption.

Methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital № 22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education,) in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6 %) were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6 %) were female. The age of the patients was from 18 till 72 years.

Results. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT) identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods.

Conclusion. The host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on function of liver, protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body


Keywords


toxoplasmosis; immune system; sex hormones; clinical manifestations; dysfunction of liver; adaptive responses; compensatory abilities

References


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Bodnya, E. I., Bobrova, O. V., Bodnya, I. Р. (2011). The state of hepatobiliar system of the patients with the chronic acquired toxoplasmosis. Actual problems of clinic, prophylaxis HIV-infection and diseases with a parenterally way of transmission: the materials scientific practical conference with international participation. Kharkov, 83–85

Roberts, C. W., Walker, W., Alexander, J. (2001). Sex-Associated Hormones and Immunity to Protozoan Parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14 (3), 476–488. doi: 10.1128/cmr.14.3.476-488.2001

Bornanad, J.-E., de Gottrau, P. (1997). Uveitis: Is Ocular Toxoplasmosis only a Clinical Diagnosis? Ophthalmologica, 211 (2), 87–89. doi: 10.1159/000310765

Fayad, M. E., Farrag, A. M., Huussein, M. M. et al. (1992). Studies on chronic liver diseases in patients with and without Toxoplasma latent infection. Journ. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol, 22 (3), 807–815.

Flegr, J. (2007). Effects of Toxoplasma on Human Behavior. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33 (3), 757–760. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbl074

Araujo, F. G., Huskinson, J., Remington, J. S. (1991). Remarkable in vitro and in vivo activities of the hydroxynaphthoquinone 566C80 against tachyzoites and tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 35 (2), 293–299. doi: 10.1128/aac.35.2.293

Goldberg, G. A. Baranova, M. N. (1988). The case of protracted supervision of the patient with toxoplasmic myocarditis and endocarditis. Clinical medicine, 130–132.

Dubey, J. P., Kotula, A. W., Sharar, A., Andrews, C. D., Lindsay, D. S. (1990). Effect of High Temperature on Infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Pork. The Journal of Parasitology, 76 (2), 201–204. doi: 10.2307/3283016

Excler, J. L. et al. (1988). Sero-epidemiological survey for toxoplasmosis in Burundi. Trop. Med. and Parasitol, 39 (2), 139–141.

Bliss, S. K., Gavrilescu, L. C., Alcaraz, A., Denkers, E. Y. (2001). Neutrophil Depletion during Toxoplasma gondii Infection Leads to Impaired Immunity and Lethal Systemic Pathology. Infection and Immunity, 69 (8), 4898–4905. doi: 10.1128/iai.69.8.4898-4905.2001

Akao, S. et al. (1986). Ultramicroscopic studies on the influence of breomycin and bestatin to Toxoplasma gondii. J.EItctron. Microsc, 35 (4), 3351–3352.

Ahlfors, K., Börjeson, M., Huldt, G., Forsberg, E. (1989). Incidence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in the City of Malmö, Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis, 21 (3), 315–321. doi: 10.3109/00365548909035702

Beazley, D. M., Egerman, R. S. (1998). Toxoplasmosis. Seminars in Perinatology, 22 (4), 332–338. doi: 10.1016/s0146-0005(98)80022-0

Tiwari, I., Rolland, C. F., Popple, A. W. (1982). Cholestatic jaudice due to toxoplasma hepatitis. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 58 (679), 299–300. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.58.679.299

Remington, J. S., MacLeod, R. (1992). Toxoplasmosis. Infectiousus Diseases. Gorback – Barlett – Blacklow, 1328–1342.

Bodnya, K. I., Bobrova, O. V., Kotsyna, S. S. (2009). The method of treatment of chronic acquired toxoplasmosis. Patent of Ukraine for useful model. А61К31/00. № 43188; declared 16.02.2009; published 10.08.2009, № 15.

Bodnya, K. I., Kotsyna, S. S. (2014). The method of treatment of chronic acquired toxoplasmosis of adults patients. Patent of Ukraine for useful model. А61К31/00. № 93627; declared 28.04.2014; published 10.10.2014, № 19.

Bodnya, K. I., Kotsyna, S. S. (2010). The method of treatment of chronic acquired toxoplasmosis of adults patients. Patent of Ukraine for useful model. А61К31/00. № 51377; declared 12.02.2010; published 12.07.2010, № 13.


GOST Style Citations


1. Dalimi, A. Latent Toxoplasmosis and Human [Text] / A. Dalimi, А. Abdoli // Iranian J Parasitol. – 2012. – Vol. 7, Issue 1. – P. 1–17.

2. Bodnya, E. I. The state of hepatobiliar system of the patients with the chronic acquired toxoplasmosis [Text] / E. I. Bodnya, O. V. Bobrova, I. P. Bodnya [Text]: theses of reports// Actual problems of clinic , prophylaxis HIV-infection and diseases with a parenterally way of transmission: the materials scientific practical conference with international participation. – Kharkov, 2011. – P. 83–85.

3. Roberts, C. W. Sex-Associated Hormones and Immunity to Protozoan Parasites [Text] / C. W. Roberts, W. Walker, J. Alexander // Clinical Microbiology Reviews. – 2001 – Vol. 14, Issue 3. – Р. 476–488. doi: 10.1128/cmr.14.3.476-488.2001 

4. Bornand, J. E. Uveitis: is ocular toxoplasmosis only a chlinical diagnosis? [Text] / J. E. Bornand, P. de Gottrau // Ophthalmologies. – 1997. – Vol. 211, Issue 2. – P. 87–89. doi: 10.1159/000310765 

5. Fayad, M. E. Studies on chronic liver diseases in patients with and without Toxoplasma latent infection [Text] / M .E. Fayad, A. M. Farrag, M. M. Huussein et al. // Journ. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. – 1992. – Vol. 22, Issue 3. – P. 807–815.

6. Flegr, J. Effects of Toxoplasma on Human Behavior [Text] / J. Flegr // Schizophrenia Bulletin. – 2007. – Vol. 33, Issue 3. – Р. 757–760. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbl074 

7. Araujo, F. G. Remarcabel in vitro and in vivo activites of the hydroxynaphthoquinon, 566C80, against tachyzoites and tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii [Text] / F. G. Araujo, J. Huskinson, J. S. Remington // Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. – 1991. – Vol. 35, Issue 2. – P. 293–299. doi: 10.1128/aac.35.2.293 

8. Goldberg, G. A. The case of protracted supervision of the patient with toxoplasmic myocarditis and endocarditis [Text] / G. A. Goldberg, M. N. Baranova // Clinical medicine. – 1988. – P. 130–132.

9. Dubey, J. P. Effect of hidh temperature on infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in pork [Text] / J. P. Dubey, A. W. Kotula, A. Sharar, C. D. Andrews, D. S. Lindsay // The Journal of Parasitology. – 1990. – Vol. 76, Issue 2. – P. 201–204. doi: 10.2307/3283016 

10. Excler, J. L. Sero-epidemiological survey for toxoplasmosis in Burundi [Text] / J. L. Excler et al. // Trop. Med. and Parasitol. – 1988. – Vol. 39, Issue 2. – P. 139–141.

11. Bliss, S. K. Neutrophil epletion during Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to impaired immunity and systemic pathology [Text] / S. K. Bliss, L. C. Gavrilescu, A. Alcaraz, E. Y. Denkers // Infection and Immunity. – 2001. – Vol. 69, Issue 8. – P. 4898–4905. doi: 10.1128/iai.69.8.4898-4905.2001 

12. Akao, S. Ultramicroscopic studies on the influence of breomycin and bestatin to Toxoplasma gondii [Text] / S. Akao et al. // J. EItctron. Microsc. – 1986. – Vol. 35, Issue 4. – P. 3351–3352.

13. Ahlfors, K. Incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the city of Malmo, Sweden [Text] / К. Ahlfors et al. // Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. – 1989. – Vol. 21, Issue 3. – P. 315–321. doi: 10.3109/00365548909035702 

14. Beazley, D. M. Toxoplasmosis [Text] / D. M. Beazley, R. S. Egerman // Seminars in Perinatology. – 1998. – Vol. 22, Issue 4. – P. 332–338. doi: 10.1016/s0146-0005(98)80022-0 

15. Tiwary, I. Cholestatic jaundice due to toxoplasma hepatitis [Text] / I. Tiwary, C. F. Rolland, A. W. Popple // Postgraduate Medical Journal. – 1982. – Vol. 58, Issue 679. – P. 299–300. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.58.679.299 

16. Remington, J. S. Toxoplasmosis. Infectiousus Diseases [Text] / J. S. Remington, R. MacLeod // Gorback – Barlett – Blacklow. – 1992. – P. 1328–1342.

17. Спосіб лікування хронічного набутого токсоплазмозу. Патент України на корисну модель МПК А61К31/00 [Текст] / Бодня К. І., Боброва О. В., Коцина С.С. – № 43188; заявл. 16.02.2009; опубл. 10.08.2009, Бюл. № 15.

18. Спосіб лікування хронічного набутого токсоплазмозу у дорослих. Патент України на корисну модель МПК А61К31/00 [Текст] / Бодня К. І., Коцина С.С. – № 93627; заявл. 28.04.2014; опубл. 10.10.2014, Бюл. № 19.

19. Спосіб лікування хронічного набутого токсоплазмозу у дорослих. Патент України на корисну модель МПК А61К31/00 [Текст] / Бодня К. І., Коцина С.С. – № 51377; заявл. 12.02.2010; опубл. 12.07.2010, Бюл. № 13.







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