Роль державних нагород у процесі формування вітчизняної політичної свідомості та культури
Ключові слова:state awards, political consciousness, political culture, hero of Ukraine, awards policy, propaganda, political and cultural values
It was examined state awards as a resource of influence on the process of formation of political consciousness and culture. It was revealed the specificity of the use of state awards in the national political and cultural practice.
The niche of state awards institutionally is in the structure of political symbols, and therefore entirely covers the functions of political symbols. Communication means, control and cognitive function is distinguished among the most significant general-symbolic functions. However, state awards have their inherent and own functions: political, stimulating, ideological, social, symbolic, diplomatic.
It was found out that the modern domestic awards practice has traditional affinity with the period of Soviet statehood which left a significant political and cultural imprint, although work on the creation of the national awards system in Ukraine began immediately after proclamation of independence. State awards obtained their legal definition on March 16, 2000 with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine "On State Awards of Ukraine". By that time a rather holistic system of distinctions has already been formed which could mark the merits of almost all spheres of public life. This law distinguishes such types of awards: Hero of Ukraine title; order; medal; nominal firearms award; honorary title of Ukraine; state prize of Ukraine; presidential award.
The title of the Hero of Ukraine is the highest degree of distinction, its assignment, depending on the grounds, includes the awarding of an order of the "Golden Star" - for doing a prominent heroic act, or an order of the state - for outstanding work achievements.
Often, presenting of state awards is an artificial attempt to create a cause for strengthening the social image of the government among the public, and in particular the wide range of awardees. So, six medals out of ten in Ukraine are commemorative and jubilee. Typically, the number of people presented by them is measured by hundreds or even by thousands. They are presented not for a particular merit, but as a reminder that the authorities are aware of pre-committed heroic deeds or events and persons involved in them. At the same time such awards represent a form of historical memory, contribute to emphasizing certain events of the past. In general the use of state awards as a mechanism of ranking political and historical priorities is a widespread world practice. In this context the Polish "East Cross" award is a sign of gratitude, respect and memory for those people who helped the Poles who were persecuted because of their nationality in the East in the years 1937-1959. The initiators of the award introduction focused on the award Yad Vashem - "Righteous among the Nations".
The political and cultural orientation of state awards is also seen in the nomination of state awards. There are four state awards: Taras Shevchenko National Prize of Ukraine, State Prize of Ukraine in the field of architecture, Oleksandr Dovzhenko State Prize of Ukraine, State Prize of Ukraine in the field of education are oriented at leaders who are capable by virtue of their profession to convey a certain ideology to the society. And only the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology allows nomination of representatives of other professions.
Each system of state awards under the condition of well-balanced domestic policy is formed in accordance with the strategic directions of social development and coordinates the demands of the society with the state interests. The lack of such coordination can cause a crisis of legitimacy of awards and as a consequence - distrust of state institutions, doubt in correctness of public policy and social justice. The authority of state awards and accordingly their positive influence on the political consciousness of society greatly undermine misunderstandings that arise periodically around their awarding.
So, despite significant cultural devaluation, state awards are not only a political symbol, an attribute of the country, stimulus for hard work and an effective resource of influence on formation of political consciousness. With proper information campaign, schooling and education, the positive effect of this resource can be strengthened in times.
Qualitative visualization of award procedures should be ensured by using the potential of political rituals with broad involvement of the media. Presenting with high state awards must be the subject of television shows and be displayed in systematically adjusted social advertising.
Авторське право (c) 2017 Василь Пахолок
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