Qualification of the international legal regime of the territory of Crimea after its seizing by Russia





annexation, conquest, foreign military presence, occupation, sovereignty


Various forms of foreign military presence on the territory of the state have been studied, such as occupation, conquest, deployment of foreign military bases, annexation, etc.

The features that characterize the legal regimes of occupation and annexation and their international regulation have been identified.

Among the signs of occupation is the effective control of the occupier over the territory of another state with the takeover of all functions of government with or without armed resistance, as well as without obtaining sovereign rights to the occupied territory.

The consequences of the invariability of the sovereignty of the territory during its occupation have been determined, in particular, a significant difference between the international legal regime of occupation and annexation; continuity of legislation of the occupied state throughout its territory; and the legal representation of the occupied state in international relations by its government in exile.

There is also a difference between the regime of occupation and the presence of foreign military bases or peacekeeping forces on the territory of the state.

Characteristic features of annexation, which is currently one of the crimes of aggression, include the unilateral declaration of state sovereignty over a territory not yet included, as well as the legitimacy of annexation through de facto ownership and international recognition of this fact.

Under international law, there is no legal mechanism for the transfer of sovereignty over territory to the aggressor through annexation. However, the shameful practice of de facto annexations after the Second World War proves the weakness of institutions and the ineffectiveness of the system of preventive and reactive measures to unconditionally ensure compliance with international law.

The main difference between occupation and annexation is the preservation or loss of state sovereignty over the territory, captured by the aggressor.

The international legal regime of Crimea at different stages after the invasion of Russian troops on its territory has been determined

Author Biography

Kyrylo Klymenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine


Department of International Relations and Social Sciences


  1. Ukraina proponuie 15-richni peremovyny z rf pro status Krymu – Podoliak (2022). Ukrinform. Available at: https://www.ukrinform.ua/rubric-crimea/3442984-ukraina-proponue-15ricni-peremovini-z-rf-pro-status-krimu-podolak.html Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  2. Territorialnaia tcelostnost Ukrainy (2014). Rezoliutciia GA OON № 68/262. 27.03.2014. OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=A/RES/68/262 Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  3. Ochevidnoe, gruboe i neispravlennoe narushenie khelsinkskikh printcipov Rossiiskoi Federatciei (2014). Rezoliutciia Parlamentskoi assambleei OBSE. 01.07.2014. OSCE Parliamentary Assembly. Available at: https://www.oscepa.org/en/documents/annual-sessions/2014-baku/declaration-2/2539-2014-baku-declaration-rus/file Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  4. Recent developments in Ukraine: threats to the functioning of democratic institutions (2014). Resolution of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe No. 1988. 09.04.2014. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Available at: http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/X2H-Xref-ViewPDF.asp?FileID=20873 &lang=en Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  5. Rezoliutsiia Yevropeiskoho Parlamentu shchodo sytuatsii v Ukraini vid 17.07.2014. Predstavnytstvo Ukrainy pry YeS. Available at: https://ukraine-eu.mfa.gov.ua/ news/25779-rezolyucija-jevropejsykogo-parlamentu-shhodo-situaciji-v-ukrajini-vid-17-lipnya-2014-roku Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  6. Zaiava ministriv zakordonnykh sprav krain NATO (2014). NATO. Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/uk/natolive/news_108501.htm Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  7. Pro zabezpechennia prav i svobod hromadian ta pravovyi rezhym na tymchasovo okupovanii terytorii Ukrainy (2014). Zakon Ukrainy No. 1207-VII. 15.04.2014. Ofitsiinyi visnyk Ukrainy, 36, 35. Available at: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1207-18 Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  8. Occupation, Belligerent. Max Planck Encyclopedias of International Law. Available at: https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e359 Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  9. Occupation, Pacific. Max Planck Encyclopedias of International Law. Available at: https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e360?rskey=TuYeYF&result=1&prd=MPIL Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  10. Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land (1907). The Hague. International Committee of the Red Cross. Available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/xsp/.ibmmodres/domino/OpenAttachment/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/4D47F92DF3966A7EC12563CD002D6788/FULLTEXT/IHL-19-EN.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  11. Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949). GenevaInternational Committee of the Red Cross. Available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/xsp/.ibmmodres/domino/OpenAttachment/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/AE2D398352C5B028C12563CD002D6B5C/FULLTEXT/GC-IV-EN.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  12. Mialksoo, L. (2005). Sovetskaia anneksiia i gosudarstvennyi kontinuitet: mezhdunarodno-pravovoi status Estonii, Latvii i Litvy v 1940–1991 gg. i posle 1991 g. Tartu, 400.
  13. Spysok viiskovykh baz SShA za kordonom. Vikipediia – vilna entsyklopediia. Available at: https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Список_військових_баз_США_ за_кордоном Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  14. Uhoda mizh Ukrainoiu i Rosiiskoiu Federatsiieiu pro status ta umovy perebuvannia Chornomorskoho flotu Rosiiskoi Federatsii na terytorii Ukrainy (1997). Uhoda No. 643_076iu 28.05.1997. Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy. Available at: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/643_076 Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  15. Rezoliutsyia HA OON No. 1000 (ES-I) 05.11.1956 (1956). OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=A/3354 Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  16. Rezoliutsyia SB OON No. 186 (1964) ot 04.03.1964 (1964). OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=S/RES/186(1964) Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  17. Rezoliutsyia SB OON No. 350 (1974) ot 31.05.1974 (4974). OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=S/RES/350(1974) Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  18. International Administration of Territories. Max Planck Encyclopedias of International Law. Available at: https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e1297?rskey=TuYeYF&result=17&prd=MPIL Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  19. Affaire de la Dette publique ottomane (Bulgarie, Irak, Palestine, Transjordanie, Grèce, Italie et Turquie) (1925). Recueil des Sentences Arbitrales, 1, 529–614. Available at: http://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_I/529-614.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  20. Rev. Mons. Sebastiao Francisco Xavier Dos. Remedios Monteiro vs. State of Goa: Judgment of the Supreme Court of India (1969). The Judgments Information System. Available at: https://main.sci.gov.in/judgment/judis/1774.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  21. Rezoliutsyia SB OON No. 267 (1969) ot 03.07.1969 (1969). OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=S/RES/267(1969) Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  22. Rezoliutsyia HA OON No. 55/134 ot 08.12.2000 (2000). OON. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=A/RES/55/134 Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  23. Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (2004). Advisory Opinion. ICJ. Available at: https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/131/131-20040709-ADV-01-00-EN.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  24. Rezoliutsyia SB OON No. 582 (1986) ot 24.02.1986 (1986). OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=S/RES/582(1986) Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  25. Rezoliutsyia SB OON No. 662 (1990) ot 09.08.1990 (1990). OON. Available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/ods.asp?m=S/RES/662(1990) Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  26. David, E. (2011). Printcipy prava vooruzhennykh konfliktov. Moscow, 1141. Mezhdunarodnyi Komitet Krasnogo Kresta. Available at: https://www.icrc.org/ rus/assets/files/other/4.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  27. Annexation. Encyclopædia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/annexation Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  28. Popravki k Rimskomu statutu Mezhdunarodnogo ugolovnogo suda po prestupleniiu agressii. 12-13. UN Treaty Collection. Available at: https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/CN/2010/CN.651.2010-Eng.pdf Last accessed: 10.04.2022
  29. Dogovor mezhdu Rossiiskoi Federatciei i Respublikoi Krym o priniatii v Rossiiskuiu Federatciiu Respubliki Krym i obrazovanii v sostave Rossiiskoi Federatcii novykh subektov ot 18 marta 2014 goda (2014). Sait Prezidenta Rossii. Available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20605 Last accessed: 10.04.2022



How to Cite

Klymenko, K. (2022). Qualification of the international legal regime of the territory of Crimea after its seizing by Russia. ScienceRise: Juridical Science, (2(20), 23–28. https://doi.org/10.15587/2523-4153.2022.258218



Juridical Science