Technology audit and production reserves <p align="justify"><strong>The aim</strong> of the «Technology audit and production reserves» journal is to publish research papers dealing with the search for opportunities to reduce costs and improve the competitiveness of products in industry. The peculiarity is that <strong>each problem is considered from two sides - the economist’s and the engineer’s</strong>, for example, in the context of forming the «price – quality» criterion, in which the first component concerns research in the field of business economics, and the second - engineering. The research result at the intersection of these disciplines can be used in the actual production to identify reserves, providing the opportunity to reduce costs and improve product competitiveness.</p> РС ТЕСHNOLOGY СЕNTЕR en-US Technology audit and production reserves 2664-9969 <p>The consolidation and conditions for the transfer of copyright (identification of authorship) is carried out in the License Agreement. In particular, the authors reserve the right to the authorship of their manuscript and transfer the first publication of this work to the journal under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY license. At the same time, they have the right to conclude on their own additional agreements concerning the non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal, but provided that the link to the first publication of the article in this journal is preserved.</p> Echoing the effect of information and communications technology on rural education development <p><em>Information and Communications Technology</em> <em>(ICT) is crucial to teaching and </em><em>learning as it has effect on such exercises in schools. However, ICT is limited in rural based compared to urban schools. In this study, the effect of the incorporation of ICT on the academic performance of rural secondary school students was investigated. Quantitative method was adopted for the study. The sample of the study comprised 34 matric learners and 14 teachers from three selected secondary schools in the rural Cofimvaba District of the Eastern Cape Province), South Africa. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. Excel was the software used to analyze the results. The findings showed that ICT use can indeed have a positive impact on learners’ academic performance. Some teachers, however, suggested that certain measures be put in place through using ICT to encourage positive behaviour. The study recommends that all rural and urban secondary schools should have access to the relevant ICT and ICT device, as these aid teaching and learning.</em></p> Olukayode Ayodele Oki Chinaza Uleanya Sanelisiwe Mbanga Copyright (c) 2023 Olukayode Ayodele Oki, Chinaza Uleanya, Sanelisiwe Mbanga 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 1 2(69) 6 14 10.15587/2706-5448.2023.269698 Development of a methodological approach to the research of special purpose communication systems <p><em>As a result of Russian aggression against Ukraine, some fundamental theses regarding the nature of hybrid military operations will require clarification and even revision. First of all, this refers to the widespread perception of the asymmetric nature of hybrid threats as those used by a weaker adversary against a party with significantly greater military, technological and human potential, mainly by non-state actors against national states. This, in turn, requires the use of modern and proven mathematical apparatus, which is capable of processing a large array of various types of data in a short period of time with a given reliability of making management decisions. The object of research is the system of strategic management of national security. The subject of the research is the synthesis methodology of the intellectual system of strategic management of national security. The research developed a methodology for the synthesis of an intelligent national security management system. The novelty of the research: taking into account efficiency while choosing one or another method while researching the state of the national security system; calculation of reliability while choosing one or another method in researching the state of the national security system. Also, an element of novelty is taking into account the efficiency of the decisions made regarding the research of the state of the national security system while using one or another research method; adaptation to new challenges and threats to national security. The next element of novelty is the validity of management decisions in the management of the national security system; taking into account different data sources, which are different in origin and measurement units; analysis of large data sets.</em></p> <p><em>It is expedient to implement the specified methodology in algorithmic and program software while studying the state of the national security system.</em></p> Qasim Abbood Mahdi Andrii Shyshatskyi Halyna Andriishena Larisa Degtyareva Nadiia Protas Yuliia Vakulenko Elena Odarushchenko Anna Lyashenko Oksana Havryliuk Bohdan Kovalchuk Copyright (c) 2023 Qasim Abbood Mahdi, Andrii Shyshatskyi, Halyna Andriishena, Larisa Degtyareva, Nadiia Protas, Yuliia Vakulenko, Elena Odarushchenko, Anna Lyashenko, Oksana Havryliuk, Bohdan Kovalchuk 2023-02-22 2023-02-22 1 2(69) 15 19 10.15587/2706-5448.2023.274258 Method of diagnosing some diseases of the neuro-muscular system and features of data processing in software <p><em>Electromyostimulation is a method of restorative treatment based on electrical stimulation of nerves and muscles. The electric current, which is used in electrical stimulation to obtain induced muscle contractions, is characterized by a large number of different parameters. However, not every possible option of electrical stimulation is highly effective. To solve the task of diagnosing some diseases of the neuromuscular system, it is important to organize the software by analyzing the parameters of the evoked potentials. Therefore, the object of research is the processes of skeletal muscle contraction under the influence of natural electrical pulses of the nervous system or under the influence of external electrical stimulation. The subject of research is models describing the processes in muscles during contraction and methods of data processing. In the course of the study, such research methods as mathematical modeling methods and methods of processing medical and biological data were used.</em></p> <p><em>The paper examines the experimental strength-duration dependence of skeletal muscle and obtained mathematical models for the normal state of the neuromuscular apparatus and different degrees of denervation. On the basis of electrodiagnosis of a patient with impaired motor functions, the dynamics of changes in the patient's condition and the effectiveness of treatment were traced. Based on the results of the study, an analysis of the parameters of the evoked potentials of the stimulation electromyogram during adaptive electrostimulation was carried out in order to control its effectiveness or establish a diagnosis in some diseases of the neuromuscular system. This made it possible to develop a method for correcting errors in the interpretation of one of the quality parameters and increase the reliability of the diagnosis. The obtained results can be used in the improvement of technical devices for electrostimulation therapy, as well as control of the effectiveness of rehabilitation procedures.</em></p> Igor Prasol Olexandr Dovnar Olha Yeroshenko Copyright (c) 2023 Igor Prasol, Olexandr Dovnar, Olha Yeroshenko 2023-02-17 2023-02-17 1 2(69) 20 25 10.15587/2706-5448.2023.273848 Collision avoidance by constructing and using a passing area in on-board controller <p><em>The object of research is the processes of automatic optimal passing of one's own ship with many dangerous targets, including maneuvering ones, by the method of constructing the area of permissible passing parameters in the on-board computer. According to the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), the largest number of ship accidents in 2014–2019 occurred due to collision (32 %). On modern ships, for observation and passing with targets, ARPA (automatic radar plotting aid) is used, which allows to automate manual operations, and the built-in function </em><em>«</em><em>Playing the maneuver</em><em>»</em><em> provides the navigator with a convenient graphic interface for solving passing problems. At the same time, ARPA is an automated system that assumes the presence of an operator in the control circuit. The presence of a person in the control circuit is related to the </em><em>«</em><em>human factor</em><em>»</em><em>, which is a prerequisite for the occurrence of various types of accidents, including ship collisions. The most effective means of reducing the influence of the </em><em>«</em><em>human factor</em><em>»</em><em> on control processes is the introduction of automatic control modules in automated systems. The paper develops a method for the passing module, which allows automatic and optimal passing with many targets, including maneuvering ones. The number of targets for passing is not limited by the method, but is limited only by the capabilities of the ARPA to track the targets. The obtained results are explained by the fact that at each step of the on-board computer, a region of permissible passing parameters is constructed for all purposes, passing parameters that optimize a given optimality criterion are selected from the constructed region, the selected parameters are used as software in the control law. The developed method can be used on ships, subject to integration into the existing automated system of an on-board computer with an open architecture, to increase the capabilities of automatic traffic control, in this case, the possibility of automatic optimal passing with many objectives, including maneuvering.</em></p> Serhii Zinchenko Oleh Tovstokoryi Oleksandr Sapronov Kostiantyn Tymofeiev Andrii Petrovskyi Artem Ivanov Copyright (c) 2023 Serhii Zinchenko, Oleh Tovstokoryi, Oleksandr Sapronov, Kostiantin Tymofeiev, Andrii Petrovskyi, Artem Ivanov 2023-02-24 2023-02-24 1 2(69) 25 29 10.15587/2706-5448.2023.274296 Development of the control system for LEGO Mindstorms EV3 mobile robot based on MATLAB/Simulink elements <p><em>The Mindstorms EV3 robot, developed by LEGO, is one of the popular robots that has been widely used in various fields. Unlike previous versions of mobile LEGO robots, EV3 allows the development of real-time applications for teaching a variety of subjects, as well as for conducting research experiments. The object of research in this case is the Mindstorms EV3 robot connected to MATLAB/Simulink. The design consists of a controller, one color sensor, two servo motors and one support wheel. Each servo motor is built on a DC collector motor with a matching gearbox and has the ability to measure the number of revolutions corresponding. A digital sensor with a sampling frequency of 1 kHz is used as a color sensor, which can determine the color or brightness of light. Despite its popularity, the EV3 robot control system in interaction with the MATLAB/Simulink programming environment is a rather complex solution and therefore requires further research. The scientific part of the research focuses on discovering the regularities of the Mindstorms EV3 control system, developing a control system model, and exploring the potential of MATLAB/Simulink to expand the robot's capabilities. An analysis of the main elements of the control system, such as sensors and servos, was carried out. The graphs of the dependences of the characteristics of the servo drives were built and the efficiency of the robot movement was checked depending on the parameters set in the program. The result of the development of the mobile robot control system was the adjustment of the mobile robot movement regulators along a given trajectory in the form of a drawn line, which allowed estimating the maximum permissible speed of the robot movement. The presented research and development of a control system based on MATLAB/Simulink elements allows using the proposed method to control a mobile robot with high precision, analyze and verify the robot's electromechanical parameters in real time. This control system has a high potential and can practically be integrated into industrial objects of mobile robotics, provided types the sensors and executive mechanisms of the mobile robot match.</em></p> Chengjian Dong Oleksii Povorozniuk Andriy Topalov Kai Wang Zhicong Chen Copyright (c) 2023 Chengjian Dong, Oleksii Povorozniuk, Andriy Topalov, Kai Wang, Zhicong Chen 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 1 2(69) 30 35 10.15587/2706-5448.2023.274846 Development of a microwave resonant waveguide slot antenna with in-phase slot excitation <p><em>The object of research in the</em> <em>work is the process of radiation of electromagnetic waves of a resonant waveguide-slot antenna with in-phase excitation of slots. The subject of research is the wave parameters and directional properties of a resonant slotted waveguide antenna with in-phase slot excitation. The existing problem is that it is necessary to ensure highly directional properties of the antenna with electrical control of its wave parameters at high transmitter power. This problem is due to the fact that to solve the problem of developing equipment for radio control</em><em>,</em><em> and radar of aircraft, highly directional antennas of small sizes are required. To solve this problem, the paper proposes the design of a simple and cheap version of a microwave resonant waveguide-slot antenna with in-phase slot excitation.</em></p> <p><em>As a basis for developing a resonant slotted waveguide antenna, the authors chose a standard R48 rectangular waveguide, which is a classic in the theory of directional systems in the microwave range. This is due to the fact that in order to calculate and study a microwave resonant waveguide-slot antenna with in-phase excitation of slots, the authors used well-known elements of the theory of aperture antennas. The design of a resonant slotted waveguide antenna consists of a rectangular waveguide, an exciter</em><em>,</em><em> and a feeder. The radiation surface of the antenna is a wide wall of a standard R48 rectangular waveguide along the central axis</em><em>,</em><em> of which slots are symmetrically cut in a checkerboard pattern. The exciter is made in the form of a metal pin inside a rectangular waveguide near the short-circuited wall. This pin acts as an asymmetric vertical vibrator that excites electromagnetic waves in a rectangular waveguide. The antenna is tuned to the maximum radiation power mechanically by moving the short-circuited wall of the rectangular waveguide. The pin feeds a feeder based on a coaxial cable with a characteristic impedance of 75 ohms.</em></p> <p><em>The developed resonant waveguide-slot antenna with in-phase excitation of slots operates in the frequency range of 4.0–6.0&nbsp;GHz. In the frequency range of</em> <em>4.0–5.45&nbsp;GHz, the value of Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) varies from 1.08 to 2.1. In the frequency range of 5.45–6.0&nbsp;GHz, the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) value varies from 2.1 to 6.55. The directivity of the antenna in the operating frequency range is not less than 90. The width of the main lobe of the antenna pattern in the horizontal plane is not more than 3.1°. The antenna gain in the operating frequency band is at least 100. The efficiency is at least 90&nbsp;% with a maximum generator signal power of 10 kW.</em></p> Andriy Semenov Olena Semenova Natalia Kryvinska Andrii Krystoforov Pavlo Kurovskyi Oleh Kaplychnyi Copyright (c) 2023 Andriy Semenov, Olena Semenova, Natalia Kryvinska, Andrii Krystoforov, Pavlo Kurovskyi, Oleh Kaplychnyi 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 1 2(69) 36 43 10.15587/2706-5448.2023.274990