Suboptimal parenting practices as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol consumption in Ukraine


  • Olena P Iakunchykova School of Public Health, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine
  • Tatiana I Andreeva School of Public Health, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol use by adolescents and relationships with parents and parenting practices in Ukraine. For this analysis, the nested case-control study design was used with pooled data from 1999, 2003, and 2007 surveys of repeated cross-sectional study “European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs”.METHODS: A nationally representative sample of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools was used. The target population consisted of all 15-16-year-old students in Ukraine. Complete data were available for 10,494 participants. Main exposures were perceptions of the relationships with one’s mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measures were: regular use of alcohol, drinking to the point of intoxication, and age when students start consuming alcohol. Associations between the determinants and outcome measures were analyzed using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Adolescents who were not so satisfied with the relationships with their mothers were nearly twice as likely (OR=1.7; 95%CI=1.2-2.5) to have used alcohol 10 or more times during the last 30 days. Adolescents who were not at all satisfied with their relationships with father were at risk of drinking to the point of intoxication at least once during last year (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.8).Adolescents whose parents never know whom he/she spends evenings with were nearly twice as likely (OR=1.8, 95%CI =1.3-2.4) to have used alcohol 10 or more times during the last 30 days. However, the relationships between rule-setting by parents, perceived support and alcohol use were not consistent.CONCLUSION(s): This study supports the hypothesis that the dissatisfaction with the relationships with one’s mother, unlike the dissatisfaction with the relations with one’s father, may be a risk factor for regular alcohol use among adolescents. Besides, our results denote the negative association of parental support and control with adolescent alcohol use. KEYWORDS: adolescents, alcohol use, risk factors, parenting style.


Beck, K. H., Boyle, J. R., & Boekeloo, B. O. (2004). Parental monitoring and adolescent drinking: results of a 12-month follow-up. Am J Health Behav, 28(3), 272-279.

Branstrom, R., Sjostrom, E., & Andreasson, S. (2008). Individual, group and community risk and protective factors for alcohol and drug use among Swedish adolescents. Eur J Public Health, 18(1), 12-18. doi: ckm038 [pii] 10.1093/eurpub/ckm038

Choquet, M., Hassler, C., Morin, D., Falissard, B., & Chau, N. (2008). Perceived parenting styles and tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French adolescents: gender and family structure differentials. Alcohol Alcohol, 43(1), 73-80. doi: agm060 [pii] 10.1093/alcalc/agm060

Cockerham, W. C., Hinote, B. P., & Abbott, P. (2006). Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. Soc Sci Med, 63(9), 2381-2394. doi: S0277-9536(06)00304-2 [pii] 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.06.001

Cohen, D. A., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement. J Drug Educ, 27(2), 199-211.

Guo, J., Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., & Abbott, R. D. (2001). Childhood and adolescent predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol, 62(6), 754-762.

Hibell B., G. U., Ahlström S., Balakireva O., Bjarnason T., Kokkevi A., Kraus L. (2007). The 2007 ESPAD Report: Substance Use among Students in 35 European Countries (pp. 406). Stockholm: Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs.

Kokkevi, A. E., Arapaki, A. A., Richardson, C., Florescu, S., Kuzman, M., & Stergar, E. (2007). Further investigation of psychological and environmental correlates of substance use in adolescence in six European countries. Drug Alcohol Depend, 88(2-3), 308-312. doi: S0376-8716(06)00369-3 [pii] 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.10.004

Komro, K. A., & Toomey, T. L. (2002). Strategies to prevent underage drinking. Alcohol Res Health, 26(1), 5-14.

Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J. D., Haggerty, K. P., Spoth, R., & Redmond, C. (2001). Preparing for the drug free years: session-specific effects of a universal parent-training intervention with rural families. J Drug Educ, 31(1), 47-68.

Latendresse, S. J., Rose, R. J., Viken, R. J., Pulkkinen, L., Kaprio, J., & Dick, D. M. (2008). Parenting mechanisms in links between parents' and adolescents' alcohol use behaviors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 32(2), 322-330. doi: ACER583 [pii] 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00583.x

Ledoux, S., Miller, P., Choquet, M., & Plant, M. (2002). Family structure, parent-child relationships, and alcohol and other drug use among teenagers in France and the United Kingdom. Alcohol Alcohol, 37(1), 52-60.

Newman, K., Harrison, L., Dashiff, C., & Davies, S. (2008). Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem, 16(1), 142-150. doi: S0104-11692008000100022 [pii]

Patock-Peckham, J. A., Cheong, J., Balhorn, M. E., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2001). A social learning perspective: a model of parenting styles, self-regulation, perceived drinking control, and alcohol use and problems. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 25(9), 1284-1292.

Patock-Peckham, J. A., & Morgan-Lopez, A. A. (2007). College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems. Psychol Addict Behav, 21(3), 297-306. doi: 2007-13102-003 [pii] 10.1037/0893-164X.21.3.297

Petraitis, J., Flay, B. R., & Miller, T. Q. (1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychol Bull, 117(1), 67-86.

Petronyte, G., Zaborskis, A., & Veryga, A. (2007). Risk factors for alcohol use among youth and main aspects of prevention programs. Medicina (Kaunas), 43(2), 103-109. doi: 0702-03 [pii]

Popova, S., Rehm, J., Patra, J., & Zatonski, W. (2007). Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries. Alcohol Alcohol, 42(5), 465-473. doi: agl124 [pii] 10.1093/alcalc/agl124

Rehm, J., Room, R., Graham, K., Monteiro, M., Gmel, G., & Sempos, C. T. (2003). The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: an overview. Addiction, 98(9), 1209-1228. doi: 467 [pii]

Rehm, J., Sulkowska, U., Manczuk, M., Boffetta, P., Powles, J., Popova, S., & Zatonski, W. (2007). Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe. Int J Epidemiol, 36(2), 458-467. doi: dyl294 [pii] 10.1093/ije/dyl294