Social gradients in responsiveness to messages on children's tobacco smoke exposure

Luiza Khakimova, Galina Ananjeva, Dmitriy Bersenev

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Health communication campaigns aimed to diminish morbidity and mortality caused by smoking are expected to impact a complicated causal pathway starting from attracting the attention of the target audience, increasing knowledge, changing behaviors, and finishing with a lower risk of death at the end. The purpose of this pilot study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the posters covering issues related to tobacco smoke exposure of small children and to explore who are those people who pay more attention to the posters.
METHODS: Observation was conducted in the underground carriages in Kazan city, Russian Federation, where posters were placed on the walls. Registered characteristics of passengers included whether the passenger was looking at the poster (outcome); gender, age, clothing of the passenger, whether a passenger is accompanied by somebody else and communicates with this person, whether a passenger holds gadgets, books or newspapers, whether a passenger looks at the screen of the monitor in the carriage. Some of the posters were also discussed in interviews.
RESULTS: The proportion of those who paid attention to the poster was on average 19%, ranging from 13% to 25%. The only variable associated with the outcome was passenger's clothing considered as a proxy for SES collapsed into three categories: (1) poorly dressed, (2) commonly dressed, (3) well-dressed. All the posters where this association was found were covering prenatal and little children's secondhand smoke exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study has generated a hypothesis, which can be used and tested in further social marketing campaigns. Lower SES passengers were paying more attention to the posters than those better off. If mothers of small children who live in families of low SES with smoking fathers or grandfathers are the primary target group for addressing this problem, metro could be the proper place for such campaigns.


Keywords


smoking; secondhand smoke exposure; social advertizing; socioeconomic status; social marketing; audience segmentation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andreasen, A. R. (2003). The life trajectory of social marketing. Marketing Theory, 3(3), 293.

Fosson, G. H., McCallum, D. M., & Conaway, M. B. (2014). Antismoking mass media campaigns and support for smoke-free environments, Mobile County, Alabama, 2011-2012. Prev Chronic Dis, 11, E150. doi:10.5888/pcd11.140106

Kuntz, B., & Lampert, T. (2016). Social disparities in parental smoking and young children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home: a time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data from the German KiGGS study between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012. BMC Public Health, 16, 485. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3175-x

Mackert, M. (2012). Account planning: applying an advertising discipline to health communication and social marketing. Health Mark Q, 29(3), 270-282. doi:10.1080/07359683.2012.705730

Moore, G. F., Holliday, J. C., & Moore, L. A. (2011). Socioeconomic patterning in changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales. Nicotine Tob Res, 13(10), 903-910. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr093

Oakes, J. M. Measuring Socioeconomic Status. e-Source. Behavioral & Social Sciences Research. Retrieved from http://www.esourceresearch.org/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Public/Oakes_FullChapter.pdf

Oakes, J. M., & Rossi, P. H. (2003). The measurement of SES in health research: current practice and steps toward a new approach. Soc Sci Med, 56(4), 769–784.

Oliver, S., Harden, A., Rees, R., Shepherd, J., Brunton, G., Garcia, J., & Oakley, A. (2005). An Emerging Framework for Including Different Types of Evidence in Systematic Reviews for Public Policy. Evaluation, 11(4), 428-446. doi:10.1177/1356389005059383

Somi, M. F., Butler, J. R., Vahid, F., Njau, J. D., Kachur, S. P., & Abdulla, S. (2008). Use of proxy measures in estimating socioeconomic inequalities in malaria prevalence. Trop Med Int Health, 13(3), 354-364. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02009.x

Thrasher, J. F., Huang, L., Perez-Hernandez, R., Niederdeppe, J., Arillo-Santillan, E., & Alday, J. (2011). Evaluation of a social marketing campaign to support Mexico City's comprehensive smoke-free law. Am J Public Health, 101(2), 328-335. doi:10.2105/ajph.2009.189704

Walsh, G., Hassan, L. M., Shiu, E., Andrews, J. C., & Hastings, G. (2010). Segmentation in social marketing: Insights from the European Union's multi‐country, antismoking campaign. European Journal of Marketing, 44(7/8), 1140-1164. doi:doi:10.1108/03090561011047562


Comments on this article

View all comments


ISSN 2222-2693 (Print)
ISSN 2222-4629 (Online)