THE POLYPHONY OF EVOLUTION OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT IN INDIA: ANTHROPOLOGICAL DETERMINATION
The article deals with the main world outlook and value properties of traditional personality in Indian philosophy. The main attention has been attended to a sense of human being according to the Oriental canons. The comparative analysis of human peculiarities in the main Indian religious and philosophical teachings has been made.
From the 18th the process of comparison of personality in the Western and the Orient civilizations begins. The main distinctive feature of them is an attitude to the nature and environment. While ‘western’ person was formed under the influence of socio-economical factors, ‘Oriental’ person acquired personal traits due to development of religious and philosophical schooling.
The origins of western researches of an anthropological pattern of the Orient civilization are very stereotyped. The reason of this occurrence is a subjective understanding of the Oriental personality by western researchers. The first scientists who noted it was Arabic thinker E.Said, who founded an Orientalism as a branch of learning. Moreover, important part from this point of view was the European aspiration for increasing its identity through the opposition ‘We VS They’.
The validity of the Arabic thinker’s thoughts is confirmed by researches of Soviet scientist Ye. Torchinov. After the example of the Upanishads (i.e. Sanskrit sacred books), the scientist debunks Western prejudices as for human absence in the Orient. According to the treatise’s ideas, the main aim of human being is an achieving of release, which is possible only by means of personal effort. It indicates existence of subjective determination in the Orient civilization.
These stereotypes and monotony are the result of scientific systematization and abstracting of the researches. We can not deny an availability of Western elements in the Orient and vice-versa.
Typical representative of the Oriental typology of cultures is an Indian area. According to M. Weber, it should be paid a special attention to India because of originality of its cultural forms. The polyphony of evolution of religious and philosophical thought in India played an important role in the forming of anthropological pattern. Each of the Indian philosophical teaching was based on cosmic and moral law. Unlike the Western religious teachings Indian philosophy disclaims the thought of God, which rule the world.
The main schoolings of orthodox and non-orthodox tradition of Indian philosophy differed according to their attitude to Veda. Orthodox, or classical tradition includes six religious and philosophical teachings. They are similar in the understanding of the world, i.e. the unity of Brahman and Atman. The aim of human being in accordance with these teachings is an overcoming of samsara.
In particular, adherents of Yoga stress on an achieving of salvation by means of meditative practices. According to Yoga, human is identified with clear consciousness. The founder of Yoga Patanjali says that during the cognition human identifies with chitta – intellectual activity and reflection of the world. Release of chitta’s influence is an obligatory demand for a salvation.
Such attitude to human we can see in Vaiseshika and Nyaya teachings. According to them an interaction
between mind and body and the world occurs by means of regeneration of Atman. As opposed to Yoga schooling of
Vedanta stressed on the rules of individual behavior.
In Buddhism, which is one of the most popular Indian teaching, anthropological pattern is described by means of the Four Noble Truths. Sensation of suffering in Buddhism is a result of human pursuit of happiness. The most optimal way for salvation is a renunciation of passions and excessive emotions. The universal law of bodhi requires of perception of self- essence and environment in unity and integrity. Urge towards good for good is a integral part of karma’s purity. A major contribution of Buddhism to Indian philosophy is an universalization of human values regardless of social conditions. At the same time Buddhism as any Indian religious and philosophical teaching concurs an ahimsa principle, i.e. non-doing of evil for all kind of animate nature.
Jainism also claims a salvation as the highest sense of human being. Contrary from Buddhism this teaching
doesn’t require a severe asceticism. Unity of substance and spirit may be achieved by means of natural self-perfection. Mortification of own passions is one of Five Great Vows, which are the base of Jainism philosophy.
Every religious and philosophical Indian teaching suggests an universal way of human being. Its essence is in an fusion of individual and world soul, which arouse release and salvation. The absence of Western cogito subject are compensated by the Orient impersonal subject. In spite of globalization, the research of main features of the Orient civilization is one of the most priority challenges nowadays.