DOI: https://doi.org/10.32461/2226-3209.4.2015.138443

PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE FORMATION OF FINE ART AND ICONOGRAPHY IN UKRAINE

Irina Golub

Abstract


This article is devoted to the study of the mutual influence of conditions of the historical development of Ukrainian art and features artistic manifestation of the artist's individual style. Considerable attention is paid to the issues of their formation in the process of establishing a national style. Ukrainian fine arts developed as an element of European integrity and took the same stage of historical development. Artistic cultural heritage should be developed on the basis of this integrity and especially the influence of historical stages, and the art of icon painting is an important factor in maintaining the artistic traditions of the past. Ukrainian art of icon painting has come a long way of development associated with the development of painting, playing spiritual reality, conveying deep feelings and thoughts of the artist. Existing scientific data on the characteristics of artistic and aesthetic development of Ukrainian iconography, as a system of religious world indicate that it developed based on the synthesis of achievements of Fine Arts and it is a prerequisite for the development of philosophical and artistic thinking, social awareness. In the historical terms the richness of Ukrainian art vividly reflected in artistic styles. Style makes it possible to see historic changes in Ukraine and creative thinking in the artistic development of the world, to identify the reasons leading Ukrainian art and ideals embodied in the originally filed artistic images, themes, works of art. Ukrainian art and art iconography have Byzantine origins. Ukrainian culture developed under the influence of European tradition reflected in the figurative style features as pan-style and traditions. The Art features contemporary Ukrainian art and their typological characteristics are characterized by a peculiar style. Ukrainian pictorial iconography also had a unique style and changed imitation of Byzantine iconographic canon to the bright colors of the Baroque. The problem of icons is the need to preserve national features and characteristics of the image (ce-lebration, original colors) without losing a pan-European trend. In the Ukrainian art of icon painting, art image icon is generalizing artistic reflection of the invisible prototype embodied in the form of a unique work of art, in particular the individual characteristics of the style of the artist, his perception of the world through the medium style of Orthodox Theology – language of lines, colors, symbols. Culture of Ukraine has undergone significant changes in the process of historical development. The original Byzantine canon and the principle of similarity replay and copy models archetypes-considered basic in medieval art and iconography affected the development of modern Ukrainian iconography. Icons School of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra showed innovative artistic values: i.e. basics of the richness of perception of the nature of its native land, its vitality and its own unique decorative cheerful colors. Beauty orthodox painting was brought to rounded images of saints, dynamic forms, glowing gold ornaments on background ascetic monastery. In today's art iconography, pronounced focus on the creation of new forms picture is taken in the Byzantine canon and stylistic combination of Ukrainian art, iconography of XX – XXI century, correlated with the Ukrainian medieval worldview. They are not only perfect as a phenomenon, but as a set of acquired habits, traditions, rituals, stereotypes, norms, ideals and so on. Unique features of the modern Ukrainian icons were expressed in a decorative style and iconographic innovation and continue to be implemented in the new media art forms. The applied theoretical analysis and stylistic guidelines representatives of past and contemporary art iconography shows the need to study these issues to understand the problems of modern Ukrainian art and the art of icon painting.  The Ukrainian masters of iconography joined the treasury of world culture, who brought many new and valuable items. In the process of historical development, the traditional use of artistic means imply a waiver of a dark palette of Byzantium and the transition to color, which is full of richness of colors and decorative baroque style. Transition of local color mixed with renaissance period creates more light and harmonious palette of icons. Features of the religious art of Ukraine in all its forms showed great originality and proved that Ukrainian iconography was at a high European level. Taking its origins from the Byzantine Ukrainian iconography formed his own style. This style of European developments on imposing Byzantine icon painting canons and Ukrainian national character originally created for other cultures the original combination of artistic features Ukrainian iconography.


Keywords


individual art style; fine art; the conditions of historical development; iconography