DOI: https://doi.org/10.32461/2226-3209.2.2019.177334

SELF-IDENTITY AND POLYCULTURAL SPACE OF POSTMODERNITY: NEW FACES OF SHAMANISM

Lidiia Shynkaruk, Tetyana Danylova, Oksana Fedyk

Abstract


The purpose of the study is to explore neo-shamanism as a cultural, spiritual and psychological phenomenon through the lens of polycultural space of postmodernity. Methodology of the study. The authors have used integrative anthropological approach, multidisciplinary analysis, comparative, cultural-historical, and descriptive methods. The scientific novelty. Rejecting classical rationality, dualist thinking “either/or”, postmodernism returns to the deep traditions of the mythological consciousness associated with nature and full of desire to live in harmony with it. Shamanic magical thinking is a part of human inherent wisdom and is expressed in the act of merging of shaman’s personality with the deity or spirits or in fetish worship. Shaman’s consciousness is fragmented into parts and his/her “I” exists in any part of the fragmented reality. He/she is self-identical in multiple identities. Within the framework of the postmodern worldview, identity loses its unitarity. The idea of the multiplicity of “I”/stream of consciousness is deeply inherent in the shamanic worldview. The emphasis on miraculous, imaginary, symbolic allows us to talk about the return of irrational. Conclusions. For modern individuals, shaman practices represent a way to go beyond the limits of their own Selves, maintain some affiliation with spiritual unity, and avoid emptiness. Neo-shamanism offers the way of personal spiritual renewal through shaman practices, which may be seen as a psychotherapeutic method for mind-body healing.


Keywords


shamanism; neo-shamanism; self-identity; multiple identity; spirituality; postmodern

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References


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Castaneda, C. (1983). The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Touchstone/Simon & Schuster. [in English].

Culliford, L. (2015). The Big Mistakes of Religion and Secularism. Psychology Today. Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/spiritual-wisdom-secular-times/201503/the-big-mistakes-religion-and-secularism [in English].

Danylova, T. (2015). The Way to the Self: The Novel “Steppenwolf” Through the Lens of Jungian Process of Individuation. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 7, 28-35. [in English].

Danylova, T.V. (2016). The Desire for Recognition in the Context of Francis Fukuyama’s Universal History. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 10, 69-77. doi 10.15802/ampr.v0i10.87303 [in English].

Danylova, T. (2017). Searching for the True Self: The Way of Nondual Wisdom. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 12, 7-15. doi 10.15802/ampr.v0i12.119069 [in English].

Derrida, J. (1973). Speech and Phenomena. Evanston: Northwestern U.P. [in English].

Drake Bear Stephen. (2014). Levels of Shamanic Consciousness. How to Journey. Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from https://drakebearstephen.wordpress.com/2014/02/13/levels-of-shamanic-consciousness/ [in English].

Drury, N. (1987). The Shaman and the Magician: Journeys Between the Worlds. Penguin Books. [in English].

Dunning, W.V. (1993). Post-Modernism and the Construct of the Divisible Self. British Journ

al of Aesthetics, 33(2), 132-141. [in English].

Eliade, M. (2004). Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Doniger, W. (Foreword), Trask, W.R. (Trans.). Princeton University Press. [in English].

Frecska, E., Hoppál, M., & Luna, L.E. (2016). Nonlocality and the Shamanic State of Consciousness. NeuroQuantology, 14(2), 155-165. doi: 10.14704/nq.2016.14.2.934. [in English].

Gingras, B., Pohler, G., & Fitch, W.T. Ed. by S. Kotz. (2014). Exploring Shamanic Journeying: Repetitive Drumming with Shamanic Instructions Induces Specific Subjective Experiences but No Larger Cortisol Decrease than Instrumental Meditation Music. PLoS One, 9(7), e102103. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102103. [in English].

Harner, M. (1992). The Way of the Shaman. HarperSanFrancisco. [in English].

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Harner, M. (2002). The Need for a Spirituality Focused on Healing – Free of Politics. The Foundation for Shamanic Studies. Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from http://www.shamanism.org/articles/article04.html [in English].

Ingerman, S. (2010). Soul Retrieval: Mending the Fragmented Self. HarperOne; Revised, Updated edition. [in English].

Jacobsen, M.D. (1999). Shamanism: Traditional and Contemporary Approaches to the Mastery of Spirits and Healing. New York-Oxford, Berghahn Books. [in English].

Khmil, V. (2016). Ambiguous Janus of Modern Democracy. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 9, 47-54. doi 10.15802/ampr2016/72228. [in English].

Kottler, J.A., Carlson, J., & Keeney, B. (2004). American Shaman: An Odyssey of Global Healing Traditions. Routledge. [in English].

Levi-Strauss, C. (1974). Structural Anthropology. Basic Books. 410 p. [in English].

Maffesoli, M., & Perrier, B. (2012). L’homme postmoderne. François Bourin Editeur. [in French].

Maffesoli, M., (2013). Interview with Michel Maffesoli. Mètode. Universitat de València. Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from https://metode.org/issues/entrevista-revistes/michel-maffesoli-2.html [in English].

Pizza, M. & Lewis, J.R. (eds.). (2008). Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Brill Academic Pub. [in English].

Pollock, D. (2015). Shamanism. Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199766567/obo-9780199766567-0132.xml [in English].

Puchalski, C., Vitillo, R., Hull, S.K. & Reller, N. Improving the Spiritual Dimension of Whole Person Care: Reaching national and International Consensus. (2014). Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17(6), 642-656. doi: 10.1089/jpm.2014.9427. [in English].

Rothenberg, J. (ed.). (1985). Technicians of the Sacred: A Range of Poetry from Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania (2nd edn). Los Angeles and London, Berkeley, California: University of California Press. [in English].

Scuro, J., & Rodd, R. (2015). Neo-Shamanism. Encyclopedia of Latin American Religions. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-08956-0_49-

Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-08956-0_49-1. [in English].

Shynkaruk, V.D., Salata, H.V., & Danylova, T.V. (2018). Myth as the Phenomenon of Culture. National Academy of Managerial Staff of Culture and Arts Herald, 4, 17-22. DOI: doi.org/10.32461/2226-3209.4.2018.152938. [in English]. [in English].

Shynkaruk, L., Shynkaruk, O. (2017). Social and Cultural Bases of Educational Services Provision and Supply of Labor Market. National Academy of Managerial Staff of Culture and Arts Herald, 4, 42-47. [in English].

Storozhuk, S., & Goian, I. (2017). Gender Existence: Correlation Between Equality and Identity. Philosophy and Cosmology, 18, 208-218. [in English].

The Foundation for Shamanic Studies. (2018). Retrieved March, 10, 2019, from https://www.shamanism.org/. [in English].