Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-06-15T15:58:28+03:00 Valery Minukhun Open Journal Systems AMI is an open-access and peer-reviewed journal with a transdisciplinary focus on medicine (microbiology and immunology) and pharmacy. It is fee-free journal for authors with free open access to PDF full-format articles. Study of the mineral composition of Hungarian lilac (Syringa josikaea) buds 2024-04-01T13:39:43+03:00 Andrii Popyk Viktoriia Kyslychenko Olena Iosypenko Olena Novosel Kateryna Skrebtsova Ganna Tartynska <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Plants of the Lilac genus (<em>Syringa</em> L.) of the Olive family (<em>Oleaceae</em> Lindl.) are extremely decorative plants that are widely cultivated in various European countries and in Ukraine. The Carpathian or Hungarian Lilac (<em>Syringa josikaea</em> J. Jacq. ex Rchb.) is especially famous, it is used to create late spring and early summer flowering displays in decorative gardening in various countries. Hungarian Lilac contains a variety of biologically active substances, in particular polysaccharides, iridoids, lignans, flavonoids, essential oils, it exhibits diaphoretic, broncholytic effects and is promising for further phytochemical research. Among the various classes of biologically active compounds, macro- and microelements that affect the activity of many enzymes, are part of various vitamins, hormones and thus support the homeostasis of the body are of no less importance. That is why it is important to study the elemental composition of plants, in particular Hungarian lilac, which can be used to treat elemental diseases common in the modern world. <strong>The purpose of the research</strong> is to conduct a quantitative analysis and qualitative composition of macro- and microelements in the buds of Hungarian Lilac, which is growing on the territory of Ukraine. <strong>Materials and methods. </strong>Buds of Hungarian Lilac harvested in May 2023 in the botanical garden of the National University of Pharmacy were used for the study. Elemental analysis was performed by the atomic absorption spectrographic method with photographic registration using the DFS-8 device. <strong>Results and discussion.</strong> By the method of atomic absorption spectrography, the presence of 19 mineral elements in the buds of Hungarian lilac was established, of which 10 (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Co, Mg, Mn, Zn, P, Mo) are essential. The total content of macro- and microelements was 1320,42 mg/100 g. The content of macroelements in the studied raw materials was equal to 1280,2 mg/100 g. In the predominant concentrations accumulated (mg/100 g): K (700,00 ± 410,60), Ca (250,00 ± 20,80), P (127,00 ± 11,18) and Mg (112,00 ± 10,85). The total content of trace elements was 39,75 mg/100 g. Fe (15,00 ± 1,55) and Al (12,50 ± 0,86) dominated among trace elements (mg/100 g). <strong>Conclusions. </strong>For the first time, the quantitative content of 19 mineral compounds was identified and quantified in Hungarian Lilac buds using atomic absorption spectrometry. Potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium are dominant. Heavy metals are identified within the permitted limits, so buds of Hungarian Lilac are a fairly safe raw material for use. The conducted studies confirm that the buds of the Hungarian Lilac contain a significant amount of vital mineral compounds, primarily essential elements. When combined with other biologically active substances of Hungarian Lilac, this indicates the therapeutic value and perspective of the plant for the creation of new drugs of various pharmacological effects based on the studied plant material</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Carpathian or Hungarian Lilac, <em>Syringa josikaea</em> J. Jacq. ex Rchb., buds, mineral compounds, qualitative composition, quantitative content.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Creation of a unified global system of medicines names: an evidence analysis 2024-06-14T14:27:00+03:00 Petro Oliinyk Bohdan Hromovyk Vasyl Humeniuk Serhii Oliinyk Anna Rybachuk <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The range of medicines with various trade names is extremely large and constantly growing. This is the reason for inadequate selection of medicines and medical errors. <strong>The aim:</strong> To study the problems of the modern state of medicines naming and to determine the ways of its solution. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> General scientific methods of cognition are used: analysis and synthesis, abstraction, deduction, modeling, generalization. The materials were publications from the Google Scholar and PubMed electronic search systems, the Crossref bibliographic database for the period 1984-2024. The following keywords were chosen: medicine and drug, naming, international nonproprietary names, trade name, original drug, generic, brand, branded generic, chemical name, medication error, drug information. <strong>Results. </strong>It was found that the huge number of trade names of medicinal products causes informational problems with possible clinical consequences. Today, there is no international regulatory system that would guarantee that the trade names of medicines from different manufacturers from different countries differed enough to avoid the risk of incorrect prescriptions due to confusion of their names. It is obvious that the breadth of the modern pharmaceutical market and the huge number of trade names of medicines on it are the reasons for their inadequate selection and medical errors.<strong> Conclusions.</strong> Based on the results of the study of the problems of the modern system of drug names, the possibility of errors in the use of drugs due to the similarity of their trade names, it is proposed to create, under the auspices of the WHO, a single global system of trade names of drugs based on the globally accepted system of international non-proprietary names, which consists of that the trade name must contain the international non-proprietary name and the name of the manufacturer. The unified global system of trade names of medicines will allow the doctor, pharmacist and patient to choose a generic medicine with a high-quality composition of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and auxiliary substances.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> medicinal product, naming,&nbsp; trade name, international nonproprietary names, medication error, drug information.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Digital logistics as a tool for minimizing logistics risks in the activities of pharmaceutical enterprises 2024-03-28T13:32:04+02:00 Anastasia Lisna Olha Posilkina Olena Litvinova <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Today, pharmaceutical supply chains form the basis of the pharmaceutical market, fueling trade, consumption, and economic growth. Trends such as digitalization, saving processes, and the geographical concentration of pharmaceutical production have made pharmaceutical supply chains more efficient but also changed their risk profile. Most pharmaceutical companies currently use risk management strategies that address local violations. Nevertheless, global experience in pharmaceutical supply chain management and strategic planning suggests that risks beyond the control of individual enterprises can have unpredictable consequences that cannot be mitigated by the efforts of one enterprise. That is why the introduction and development of digital technologies that have significant potential to minimize and prevent risks, in particular in the logistics activities of pharmaceutical enterprises, is an urgent topic of our time. <strong>Aim. </strong>The aim of the study was to analyze the prospects of digitalization of logistic processes at pharmaceutical enterprises to minimize and eliminate logistic risks in an unstable external environment for the timely provision of necessary and high-quality pharmaceutical products to the population. <strong>Materials and methods. </strong>To achieve the aim of the study, foreign and domestic scientific literature on pharmaceutical logistics was analyzed. Research methods are informational, retrospective, graphic, statistical, and logical. <strong>Results and discussion</strong><strong>.</strong> The relevance of digitalizing the logistics activities of pharmaceutical enterprises and pharmaceutical supply chains to improve their reliability and safety has been substantiated. Trends in the development of logistics that will shape the future of the pharmaceutical industry have been identified. The risks associated with the introduction of digital technologies into the logistics activities of pharmaceutical enterprises are identified. A review of methods of managing digital risks in the logistics activities of pharmaceutical enterprises was conducted. An algorithm for risk management in the digital transformation of business processes in the logistics activity of pharmaceutical enterprises is proposed. <strong>Conclusion. </strong>It is proven that a certain potential and experience of using digital technologies have already been accumulated in domestic pharmacy, which opens up serious innovative prospects for minimizing and preventing risks, in particular in the logistics activities of pharmaceutical enterprises. The COVID epidemic and military action highlighted the weaknesses of domestic pharmaceutical logistics. And it is the active introduction of digital technologies into the logistics activities of pharmaceutical enterprises that will contribute to their successful solution. Undoubtedly, the issue raised in this study does not fully address the complex array of questions related to the implementation of scientific and practical approaches to risk management resulting from the application of digital technologies in the logistical activities of pharmaceutical enterprises and pharmaceutical supply chains. Unresolved are a set of issues associated with substantiating the mechanism for managing the risks of digital transformation of logistical business processes, developing a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of managing digital risks in the logistical activities of pharmaceutical enterprises, and others, which will define the prospects for our further research.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> pharmaceutical enterprise, pharmaceutical supply chain, pharmaceutical market entities, digitalization, digital risks.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Antimicrobial effects of pharmaceutical compositions of nisin with auxiliary components 2024-05-03T20:24:26+03:00 Tetyana Osolodchenko Artur Martynov Iryna Andreieva Nadiya Zavada Olena Batrak Iryna Ryabova <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>One of the promising methods of combating antibiotic resistance can be the combination of nisin with helper substances that do not have a direct antimicrobial effect, but in one way or another bind the resistance factors of bacteria, restoring their sensitivity to classical antibiotics. The search for helper substances among already known and well-studied substances is considered a promising direction in the fight against the resistance of microorganisms. <strong>The aim of the work</strong> is the microbiological substantiation of the feasibility of creating pharmaceutical compositions based on nisin with auxiliary substances for the treatment of infectious and purulent-inflammatory diseases. <strong>Materials &amp; methods</strong>. The antimicrobial activity of 1.0% aqueous solutions of unmodified and modified nisin with helper substances was determined. Modified nisin was obtained by acylation of nisin with acetic anhydride. Diclofenac sodium and amlodipine are used as auxiliary substances. 17 clinical strains of microorganisms were used for microbiological research. The antimicrobial activity of substances and their combinations was determined by the diffusion method of "wells" with the measurement of the diameters of the zones of growth retardation of microorganisms. <strong>Results &amp; discussion</strong> 1.0% aqueous solutions of unmodified nisin and amlodipine in isolated form exerted mainly a weak antimicrobial effect on gram-positive microorganisms. Moderate sensitivity of clinical strains of <em>S. epidermidis</em> and weak sensitivity of <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. faecalis</em> to sodium diclofenac was established. With regard to clinical strains of gram-negative microorganisms, all investigated substances in isolated form were inactive or weakly active. When combining unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine, an increase in the antimicrobial effect of the combinations was observed to a high level against some clinical strains of <em>S. epidermidis</em> and to a moderate level against the remaining clinical strains of gram-positive microorganisms and <em>E. coli</em>. When combining 1.0% aqueous solutions of unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine in all cases, their antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of <em>S. aureus</em> increased to moderate. Clinical strains of <em>S. epidermidis</em> showed the greatest sensitivity to combinations of unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine. Regarding all investigated representatives of the genus <em>Streptococcus</em>, the effect of combinations of unmodified nisin with diclofenac sodium and the triple combination of nisin, diclofenac and amlodipine was moderate. However, half of the studied strains of <em>Streptococcus</em> spp. were generally insensitive to the combination of unmodified nisin and amlodipine. Regarding the studied clinical strains of <em>E.faecalis</em>, the antimicrobial effect of all studied combinations of substances was moderate. As a result of experiments with gram-negative clinical strains of microorganisms, it was established that <em>E.coli</em> strains were moderately sensitive to all tested combinations of unmodified nisin, sodium diclofenac and amlodipine. Representatives of <em>Proteus</em> spp. were insensitive to double combinations of unmodified nisin with diclofenac sodium and nisin with amlodipine. The triple combination of unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine was effective on clinical strains of <em>Proteus</em> spp. weak antimicrobial effect. When combining 1.0% aqueous solutions of acetylated nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine in all cases of a double combination, the antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>S. epidermidis</em> increased to a moderate level, and to a high level in relation to the triple combination. Regarding the representatives of <em>Streptococcus</em> spp., <em>E.faecalis</em> and gram-negative microorganisms, the antimicrobial effect of all studied combinations was moderate. <strong>Conclusion. </strong> 1. When combining unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine, an increase in the antimicrobial effect of the combinations was observed to a high level in relation to some of the clinical strains of <em>S. epidermidis</em> and to a moderate level in relation to the rest of the clinical strains of gram-positive microorganisms and <em>E.coli</em>. 2. When combining unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine, their triple combination was the most effective, which, in addition to a high antimicrobial effect against 50.0% of clinical strains of <em>S. epidermidis</em> and a moderate one against <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>E.faecalis</em>, the remaining strains of <em>S. epidermidis</em> and <em>E.coli</em> showed a weak antimicrobial effect against the studied clinical strains of <em>Proteus</em> spp.3. When combining acetylated nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine, an increase in the antimicrobial effect of the combinations was observed against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. 4. In a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of 1.0% aqueous solutions of unmodified nisin, diclofenac sodium, amlodipine in isolated form and their combinations, as well as acetylated nisin in combinations with diclofenac sodium and amlodipine, the most effective against the studied clinical strains of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms a triple combination of 1.0% aqueous solutions of acetylated nisin, diclofenac sodium and amlodipine was found.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> nisin, acetylated nisin, auxiliary components, diclofenac sodium, amlodipine, pharmaceutical compositions, microorganisms, antimicrobial activity</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Study of antibiotic resistance formation in gram-negative bacteria isolated from battle wounds 2024-05-30T14:00:38+03:00 Yanina Kutasevych Svetlana Dzhoraіeva Eduard Khoroshun Valentina Honcharenko Hanna Kondakova Volodymyr Nehoduiko Olena Ivantsova Olha Oliinyk <p><strong>The purpose of the work</strong> is to determine the spectrum of sensitivity to antibiotics of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>K. pneumoniae</em>, isolated from gunshot and mine-explosive combat wounds, with the study of the rate of development of resistance to antibiotics of the carbopenem group. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>. Clinical strains (<em>K. pneumoniae</em> - 23, <em>P. aeruginosa</em> - 12) were used for the study, which were isolated from the wounded who received combat injuries localized in the lower limbs and were treated in the military medical clinical center of Kharkiv. Microbiological studies were conducted on the laboratory of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics of the State Establishment "Institute of Dermatology and Venereology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" using generally accepted methods. <strong>The results.</strong> A high degree of resistance of the leading pathogens of combat wound infection - <em>K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> to most groups of antibiotics was established. In particular, 83.3% of clinical strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>, 78.3% of <em>K. pneumoniae</em> were insensitive to meropenem, and about 70% of these strains were insensitive to the combination of meropenem/vaborbactam. Experimentally, the rapid dynamics of the formation of resistance to meropenem is shown. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The leading factors of infectious complications of combat wounds, <em>K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> are characterized by multiple resistance not only to widely used antibiotics, but also to new combinations of antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors, including reserve antibiotics, which creates an extremely threatening situation. Determination of the dynamics of the formation of resistance to meropenem in clinical strains of <em>K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> showed a fairly rapid jump-like dynamics of the acquisition of resistance, which indicates the possibility of phenotypic realization of the genetically determined trait of resistance to carbapenems.</p> <p> </p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute The study of intestinal microbiota and duodenal aspirate in patients with giardiasis accompanied by allergic skin diseases 2024-06-14T13:51:41+03:00 Olena Pоkryshkо Oleksandr Kamyshnyi Nataliya Tkachuk Nina Olyinyk Alina Petruk Oleh Ivahiv Natalia Nychyk Alina Pоkryshkо pоkryshkо <p><strong>Background</strong><em>. Giardia lamblia</em> can be an etiological factor of allergic skin diseases. In the human body, giardia create parasitocenosis. Giardia’s colonization of the intestine causes dysbiosis throughout the gut that persists during infection, in turn affects the development of symptoms in patients with giardiasis. The purpose of the work was to study the duodenal aspirate and commensal gut microbiota in patients with giardiasis infestation, which was accompanied by allergic skin dermatoses. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong><em>. </em>38 patients with giardiasis accompanied by allergic skin diseases were examined. The presence of giardia in duodenal aspirates and stools samples was determined using light-optical microscopy and the method of polarized fluorescence. Microbiological studies of biological material were carried out in accordance with regulatory documents and generally accepted methods. Based on the results of the conducted microbiological study of the gut microbiota, the dysbiosis and its severity were determined according to the unified classification. Statistical processing was carried out using the Statistica 7.0 MicrosoftExel computer program. <strong>Results</strong>. The giardiasis was confirmed in all 38 examined persons. The efficiency of light optical microscopy of stool samples has been 55.3%, of duodenal aspirate samples - 71.5%. G. <em>Giardia lamblia</em> cysts were found in the fece samples of all patients. Vegetative forms of giardia were found in duodenal contents (55.5% of patients). Most often, trophozoites were found in portion C (26.7%). The efficiency of polarization fluorescence has been 92.1%. This method of <em>Giardia</em> detecting was more effective than light-optical microscopy by 20.6%. All patients were diagnosed with dysbiosis of gut. In most of them (86.4%) f subcompensated level of dysbiosis was found out. Among the microorganisms isolated from the duodenal aspirates, coagulase-negative cocci and yeast were dominated. Portion B of aspirates was the most contaminated with microorganisms, portion C was the least contaminated. Three-component microbial associations were dominated in a portion A; two-component associations – in a portion B. In a portion most of isolates were monocultures. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. <em>G. lamblia</em> cysts were found in stools of giardiasis patients with accompanying allergic skin diseases in 100.0% of cases, but only in 55.3% of people in the first sample. The efficiency of detecting <em>G. lamblia</em> in duodenal aspirate samples is 71.5%; moreover, vegetative forms of <em>G. lamblia</em> were found in 55.5%. There is a relationship between the presence of <em>G. lamblia</em> and the severity of intestinal dysbiosis. The results of the study showed that the presence of giardia can be an indicator of intestinal dysbiosis. <em>G. lamblia</em> is involved in the formation of a special state of parasitocenosis in the human body, which can include various bacteria and protozoa. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and <em>Candida</em> spp predominate in the microbial communities of duodenal contents. The colonization level of duodenal aspirates decreases according to the gradient: portion A → portion B → portion C. Treatment of patients with allergic dermatitis and giardiasis should be comprehensive, taking into account the intestinal dysbiosis diagnosed in them.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong><em>Giardia lamblia</em>, giardiasis, allergic <strong>skin diseases</strong>, laboratory diagnostics</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute The state of the immune system in pregnant women after organ-sparing treatment of borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries 2024-06-14T16:49:58+03:00 Oleksiy Egorov <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The efficiency of standard organ-sparing operations for borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries is high both from an oncological point of view and in terms of preserving reproductive function and quality of life. The state of the immune system of the mother and fetus during pregnancy is the most important problem of modern obstetrics. <strong>The purpose</strong> of the study was to study the state of the immune system in pregnant women after organ-sparing treatment of borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The main group included 40 pregnant women who, 2 to 5 years ago, underwent organ-preserving treatment for borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries (malignant ovarian tumors of stages Ia and Ic). The control group included 40 practically healthy pregnant women with an uncomplicated history and physiological course of this pregnancy. In the examined women, the immune status was established according to absolute and relative indicators of cellular and humoral links of systemic immunity - assessment of the concentration of immunoglobulins of class A, G and M in blood serum according to Manchini and in cervical mucus, as well as analysis of indicators of cellular immunity using the method of monoclonal antibodies. The concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIg A) in biological fluid was studied by enzyme immunoassay. <strong>Results and discussion.</strong> The conducted studies showed that in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries, there is a decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes by 18.4%, as well as changes in the percentage of the subpopulation of T-helpers and T-suppressors with a noticeable increase in the level of CD4+ (T- helpers) by 17.8% and a sharp decrease in CD8+ (T-suppressors) by 26.7%, which indicates the blocking of the immune response and the possibility of allergic or autoimmune disorders in this category of women. Along with this, an increase in the level of CD56+ (natural natural killers) was noted by 31.4% in comparison with similar indicators of the control group. An increase in the immunoregulatory index was also noted, which may be evidence of the activation of autoimmune processes. The results of the study of the humoral link of systemic immunity in pregnant women of the main group allowed establishing the following violations: the concentration of immunoglobulin M and A increases, as well as the concentration of immunoglobulin G and circulating immune complexes (by 2.9 times compared to control indicators). During the evaluation of the concentration of class A, G and M immunoglobulins in the cervical mucus of pregnant women after organ-sparing treatment of borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries, as the most informative indicators of local humoral immunity, an increase in the concentration of Ig G by 33.2% and a decrease in Ig A by 27 .1% compared to the control group. There was also a significant increase in Ig M indicators by 37.4% compared to the control group. The above indicates that a secondary immunodeficiency condition is formed in this category of women. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> 1. In pregnant women, after organ-preserving treatment of borderline tumors and early oncological pathology of the ovaries, there are changes in the cellular link of the immune system, which are manifested in a violation of autonomous immune self-regulation, first of all, in a decrease in the recognition function and weakening of suppressor mechanisms in the process of forming an immune response. 2. The obtained data indicate that in pregnant women of the main group, changes in the local immune system are accompanied by various disturbances, which is manifested by a decrease in the concentration of Ig A, sIg A and an increase in Ig G and Ig M.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> pregnancy, immune system, borderline tumors, early oncological pathology of ovaries.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Analysis of the domestic market of medicines for the treatment of acute intestinal infections 2024-02-24T01:42:34+02:00 Irina Saуko Yelyzaveta Halesova Antonina Sichkar Iryna Kryklyva <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Acute intestinal infections, despite the achievements of modern medicine, are still diseases that pose a threat to health and life of many people. <strong>Aim.</strong> To study and analyze the current Ukrainian market of registered medicinal products for the treatment of acute intestinal infections as on October 2023 and to develop proposals to meet the demand of patients for domestic medicines. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The information base of the study included data from scientific periodicals, Internet sites, the State Register of Medicines of Ukraine, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, and Compendium. The following methods were used to study the range of medicinal products used to treat acute intestinal infections: statistical, systematic, comparison, forecasting, marketing, grouping and structural analysis. <strong>Results.</strong> According to the results of the research, as of October 2023, 169 medicines for the treatment of acute intestinal disorders were registered in the State Register of Medicines of Ukraine. The studies have established the dominance of domestic enterprises by origin of the manufacturer; by dosage form – solutions for infusion and tablets; in composition of medicines – monocomponent. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The results of the study have identified the relevance for further research on the development and production of combination drugs for the treatment of acute intestinal infections.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> acute intestinal infections; pharmaceutical market; antimicrobial effect; rehydration therapy; medicines; dosage form.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Application of the photodynamic method in vaccinology 2024-03-17T21:11:22+02:00 Svitlana Kalinichenko Artur Martynov Khristina Melentieva Tetyana Antusheva Olha Kovalenko Petro Ovetchin <p><strong>Intriduction</strong>. Currently, toxic substances are used to inactivate vaccine antigens, which enter into a chemical reaction with the antigen and change its chemical structure or configuration, as a result of which, after a covalent reaction with inactivators, abnormal antigenic determinants appear that increase the reactogenicity and allergenicity of vaccine preparations. One of the modern trends in the development of science related to the improvement of vaccine preparations is the use of substances that are safe and do not lead to the appearance of abnormal antigenic determinants for the inactivation of pathogens. Such substances can include photosensitizers. The use of photoinactivated pathogens provides a basis for the creation of the latest vaccine preparations. Flavins are substances capable of photomodification, i.e. able to transfer charge upon absorption of photons, which mediates cell signaling or gene expression in endogenous protein complexes, such as light-oxygen-voltage sensing domains in bacteria and plants. Unlike other substances for inactivating vaccines, flavonoids used in the medical and pharmaceutical industry are classified as "GRAS" (generally regarded as safe) by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) toxicity class. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>. The object of the study is the bacteriophage polyvalent Piophage®. Reference strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (F-49), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (F-50) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (F- 51). Bactericidal irradiators (bactericidal wavelength 253.7 nm) were used as a source of ultraviolet light. Riboflavin solution in polysorbate-80 0.02%-1.0% (Fluka, Austria) was used as a photoinactivator. <strong>Results &amp; Discussion</strong>. Phage sensitivity was determined in 122 clinical strains of E. coli. It was established that among the clinical strains of Escherichia coli, 4.7% were not sensitive to Piofag, 47.6% had sensitivity at the level of individual negative colonies (from 10 to more than 20) - weak and moderate, 47.7% had sufficient sensitivity ( semi-fluid and fluid lysis) to the indicated commercial polyvalent bacteriophage. Among 33 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the percentage of strains that were not susceptible to commercial polyvalent bacteriophage was 31.4%, 61% of clinical strains were susceptible at the level of individual negative colonies, and only 7.6% of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa were highly susceptible ( semi-draining and draining lysis) to Piofag. It was experimentally established that the infectious activity (phage titer) of the commercial Piophage bacteriophage according to the Appelman method is 10<sup>-9</sup>. Determined that the average activity of the commercial bacteriophage Piofag to the tested P. aeruginosa test cultures was (3.66 ± 0.62) × 109 IU/ml, to the E. coli test cultures (5.66 ± 0. 41) × 109 IU/ml and (4.33 ± 0.64) × 109 IU/ml. to test cultures of S. aureus. It was experimentally determined that UV irradiation for 60 minutes led to a virulicidal effect in all experiments, regardless of the use of FS. Solutions of riboflavin in concentrations from 0.5% to 0.05% partially protected the bacteriophage from UV radiation - after 45 minutes of irradiation, individual negative colonies were recorded, in contrast to the control. Inactivation of bacteriophages at the level of controls was determined under the influence of two concentrations of photoinactivator - 0.02% and 0.01%. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. The obtained results indicate that ultraviolet rays cause, most likely, local changes in the Piofag® viral nucleic acid, leading to the replacement of individual bases, thus the reversion of bacteriophage strains included in Piofag® did not occur. According to the results of the experiment, the best concentrations of riboflavin for further experiments were found to be 0.02% and 0.01% at UVF for 15 minutes. <br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: phytoinactivators, bacteriophage, bacteria, vaccines.</p> <p> </p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Study of antimicrobial activity of dry phytoextract 2024-06-14T14:48:10+03:00 Oleksandr Shmalko Наталія Filimonova Svitlana Dzhoraіeva Liliia Vyshnevska <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>. </strong>Human microbiota plays an important role in the functioning of the body, on which the provision of important functions of the human body depends. Therefore, a violation of the quantitative or qualitative composition of the microbiocenosis of any biotope (dysbiosis) often complicates the course of many diseases of people of different ages, and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) constitute a significant part of chronic pathology of the digestive organs.<strong> The aim </strong>of the work was to study the antimicrobial activity of the dry extract test sample by the method of multiple serial dilutions and its microbiological purity. <strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The researchers used test cultures of <em>S. аureus </em>– АТСС-25923<em>, Е. соli </em>– АТСС-25922<em>, Р. аеruginosa </em>– АТСС-27853<em>, Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> – NCTC 5055. The antifungal effect of the extract was studied on the reference strain <em>C. albicans</em> ATCC 885-653.<strong> Research results. </strong>The experimental test sample of dry phytoextract revealed antimicrobial activity against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>C. albicans</em> at the level of 46.8 ± 17.1 and 52.1 ± 16.1 µg/ml, respectively. <em>E. coli</em>, <em>K. pneumoniae</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em> showed no sensitivity to the action of the dry extract test sample. It was confirmed that the presence of phytoextract in buffered samples of meat-peptone broth (MPB) with pH from 5.0 to 6.5 did not affect the physiological properties of microbial cultures. At the same time, starting from pH 6.8 to 8.5, an increase in the antiseptic effect is registered. The obtained results prove that in the comparison of MPB samples with pH 6.8 and 8.5, the bacteriostatic antistaphylococcal activity of the studied sample increased by 2.03 times, and relative to <em>Candida</em> by 2.1 times. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Determination of the microbiological purity of a phytoextract sample by the method of two-layer seeding showed that the total number of viable aerobic microorganisms (TAMC) is 55 CFU/g and the total number of yeast and mold fungi (TYMC) is up to 10 CFU/g, which indicates that the phytoextract meets the requirements SPhU according to this indicator.<strong> Conclusions. </strong>The obtained results indicate the prospects for the development of medicinal preparations with the investigated phytoextract and further study of its antibacterial properties in other concentrations of the dry phytoextract. According to the results of experimental studies, the dry phytoextract meets the requirements of SPhU in terms of «microbiological purity».</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> extract, antimicrobial activity, microbiological purity.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Comparative study of the chemical composition of herb and flowers of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus l.) 2024-06-14T16:38:40+03:00 Sofia Ilyina Iryna Zhuravel <p>Herbal medicinal products play a crucial role in contemporary medicine. The search for new sources of biologically active compounds and the expansion of the range of phytopreparations are currently relevant. Snapdragons (<em>Antirrhinum majus</em> L.), a herbaceous plant belonging to the Plantain family (<em>Plantaginaceae</em>), present promising research prospects. In Ukraine, snapdragons are currently cultivated as ornamental plants, which provides a raw material base. <strong>The aim</strong> of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the herb and flowers of snapdragons. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: the objects of the study were the herb and flowers of snapdragons (<em>Antirrhini majus herba, Antirrhini majus flores</em>) of the Overture and Snappy varieties. The raw materials were harvested during the flowering phase of the plants in August 2023 in the Kharkiv region (Ukraine). The chemical composition was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography. An accurate sample (approximately 1.0 g) of the raw material was placed in a ground-glass flask and 10 ml of 70% ethanol was added. The mixture was heated on a boiling water bath with a reflux condenser for 30 minutes. The extract was then cooled, filtered, and brought to volume with the same solvent in a 10 ml volumetric flask. Subsequently, 5 ml of the obtained extract was placed in a 10 ml volumetric flask and brought to volume with 70% ethanol. Chromatography was conducted on a Milichrom A-02 liquid chromatograph with a ProntoSil-120-5-C18 AQ column under the following conditions: length – 75 mm, diameter – 2 mm, with particle size – 5 μm. Eluent A consisted of 4 M lithium perchlorate and 0.1 M perchloric acid. Eluent B was acetonitrile. Detection was performed at 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 280, and 300 nm. The thermostat temperature was maintained at 40°C, and the mobile phase flow rate was 100 μl/min. The eluent gradient ranged from 5% to 100% eluent B over 40 minutes. Sample volumes were 800 μl (initial), 4000 μl, and 4300 μl. The obtained chromatograms were analyzed using the AlphaChrom software. <strong>Results</strong>: in the studied raw materials, 15 chemical compounds were identified, including sugars (glucose and fructose), free amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan), flavonoids (auronolin, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, apigenin 7,4′-diglucuronide, luteolin 7-glucuronide), carotenoids (lutein, ß-carotene), chalcononaringenin 4′-glucoside, cyanidin, and antirrhinoside. Significant qualitative differences between the herb and flowers, as well as between the Overture and Snappy varieties, were not detected. Therefore, for further research and the development of medicinal products, the use of raw materials from both studied varieties of garden snapdragons can be considered.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <em>Antirrhini majus herba</em>, Snapdragons, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flavonoids, iridoids, amino acids, sugars.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Development of vaccines from nosocomial strains of P. aeruginosa for preventive immunization of risk groups in the conditions of war 2024-06-14T16:59:27+03:00 Svitlana Dercach Nataly Kutsai Nadiya Sklyar Anatoly Maryushchenko Valentina Dyachenko <p>The problem of adequate therapy and prevention of purulent-inflammatory complications caused by nosocomial strains acquires special importance in the conditions of military operations. The structure of nosocomial infections in hospitals of different profiles is quite different, but <em>P. aeruginosa</em> is the most significant pathogen. To date, comprehensively studied harmless highly effective means of combating blue pus infection, including specific vaccines, have not been implemented. We consider the production of immunostimulating drugs from hospital strains (hereinafter - hospital vaccines) to be the most promising. Candidate strains should be circulating local polyresistant nosocomial strains, extracted from patients in foci of infection, in particular, with ventilator-associated pneumonia. <strong> The aim of the study</strong>. Analytical-experimental substantiation of current areas of improvement of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine therapy of pyogenic infection in the conditions of martial law. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>. Analysis of professional literary sources of information. Experimental study of vaccine samples from nosocomial strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>, obtained by the photodynamic method (5 samples), on purebred white mice (160 animals ), which were kept in the vivarium of the Institute of Medical Sciences of the National Academy of Medical Sciences under standard conditions. All experiments were performed in triplicate in accordance with international rules (Directive 86/609/EEC) and Rules for working with animals (approved by the Committee on Bioethics of the State University of IMI of the National Academy of Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The protective properties of vaccine samples were studied on laboratory animals by administering 0.2 ml subcutaneously or 0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Control infection was carried out with homologous and heterogeneous strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> with determination of LD 50 and survival rates. To study the effectiveness of vaccine therapy, a group of mice was injected with an infectious dose of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> culture, and the next day - a multi-strain vaccine in a dose of 0.2 ml subcutaneously, repeating the injections on the 3rd and 7th day. Non-vaccinated mice were used as a control group. The obtained research results were processed by the method of variational statistics using the MS Excel 2003 program using the x2 criterion and univariate variance analysis (р ≤ 0.05). <strong>Research results</strong>. The effectiveness of the developed vaccine samples was studied when the drug was administered parenterally to laboratory animals by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal vaccination. Experimental studies have confirmed the protective effectiveness of the obtained samples of blue pus vaccine and its possible use in immunoprophylaxis and autovaccine therapy. Indicators of protective activity of multistrain vaccine samples from nosocomial strains varied from 78.6% to 88.9%, and in the control - from 18.8% to 22.2%. The experiment studied the prospects of using autovaccines in the treatment of mice previously infected with homologous strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>. At the same time, the survival rates were 71.8%, that is, they were three times higher than in the control group. Moreover, even in the absence of complete recovery, treatment with autovaccine significantly extended their life (up to 20-30 days) and reduced the degree of clinical symptoms of the disease. The introduction of the so-called hospital vaccine prepared from several actual hospital strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> into experimental animals, even during the presence of clinical manifestations of infection (on the 3rd-7th day after infection), was also effective, since the number of dead animals was significantly lower (x2 &lt; 0, 05). The obtained results proved that blue-pus vaccines developed in this way can be recommended for the treatment of blue-pus infection [10,15,16]. In our opinion, it is no less promising to determine the possibility of moving away from the traumatic method of immunization, replacing it with a mucosal one. This is another direction of research, which is especially relevant in wartime conditions, for victims of hostilities with the aim of preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. <strong>Conclusion. </strong>Analytical analysis of the incidence of nosocomial infections and the problems of combating them in the conditions of martial law, as well as the results of own research, allows us to outline the directions for improving the means of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine therapy of pyelonephritis. The method of obtaining immunogens developed on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa model can be successful in the development of vaccines also from other bacteria-causing purulent-inflammatory diseases (Acinetobacter, proteus or Escherichia coli, staphylococci, etc.) and promising for the construction of combined vaccine preparations. This will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the fight against nosocomial infections in both wartime and peaceful postwar times.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, nosocomial strains, vaccines, war condition</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Study of the antibacterial effect of extracts from Lespedecia bicolor and cream based on them 2024-04-25T11:50:52+03:00 Kateryna Kiselyova Tatyana Osolodchenko Liliia Vyshnevska <p><strong>Aim of work</strong>. The aim of the work is the microbiological substantiation of the creation of medicinal products with extracts from Lespedeza bicolor for the treatment of infectious and purulent-inflammatory diseases. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>. The antimicrobial activity of water, alcohol, and oil extraction of the ground part of Lespedecia bicolor, as well as cream with oil and alcohol extraction of Lespedecia compared to the reference drug Calendula ointment was studied. Reference test cultures of microorganisms belonging to different taxonomic groups, as well as clinical isolates, were used for microbiological examination of the samples. The antimicrobial activity of the studied samples was determined by the diffusion method of "wells" and disks with the measurement of the diameters of the growth retardation zones of microorganisms. <strong>Results and discussion</strong>. It was established that the extraction of the ground part of Lespedeza bicolor has a moderate antimicrobial effect against selected strains of microorganisms. The results showed that relative to the reference strains of microorganisms and clinical isolates, the highest antimicrobial effect is shown by the aqueous extraction of lespedeza. The presence of pronounced sensitivity of test strains of Staphylococcus microorganisms to Lespedeza extractions determined the urgency of developing a cream with oil and alcohol extraction of Lespedeza bicolor. Moderate antimicrobial action of the cream against the test strain S.aureus ATCC 25923 and weak antibacterial action against the test strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-Р and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653 and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus 16, Staphylococcus epidermidis 14, Streptococcus pneumoniae 14, Streptococcus pyogenes 2432 and Staphylococcus aureus 124 was experimentally established, which exceeds or is at the level of activity of the reference drug "Calendula ointment". <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Microbiological studies have established the presence of antibacterial activity of extracts of the Lespedeza bicolor ground part in relation to gram-positive and gram-negative reference strains of microorganisms and clinical isolates. It is shown that the cream with oil and alcohol extraction of Lespedeza in terms of antimicrobial activity exceeds or is at the level of activity of the reference drug "Calendula Ointment".</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute Antiseptic properties of the solution generated by the IOON MED device 2024-06-14T16:23:52+03:00 Mykhailo Manuilov Artur Martynov Andriy Manuilov Nadiia Skliar Olena Batrak <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The spread of antibiotic- and antiseptic-resistant hospital-acquired infections is a highly relevant problem both in Ukraine and in other countries, even those with developed and modern healthcare systems. For example, cases of the spread of nosocomial strains in the United States , the European Union , Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, etc. have been described.&nbsp; The World Health Organization describes the problem of the spread of nosocomial strains as global and one that needs to be addressed as soon as possible.&nbsp; In Ukraine, additional negative factors contributing to the spread of nosocomial infections include - a significant increase in the burden on health care facilities, especially military ones, due to a significant number of patients with gunshot wounds and mine-blast injuries sustained as a result of the armed aggression of the rf . Gunshot wounds and mine-blast traumas are considered infected by default; - shortage of medical personnel in healthcare facilities in Ukraine; - widespread self-medication among the population, including with antibiotics, which results in pathogens gaining resistance to a wide range of antibiotic drugs. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>. Method of antiseptic treatment of infected Petri dishes.&nbsp; An 18-24 hour culture of microorganisms was used. Muller-Hinton agar was used for bacteria. Sabouraud agar was used for <em>Candida albicans</em>. The bacterial suspension was applied to a sterile Petri dish, the suspension was evenly distributed over the surface, and the Petri dish was placed in a sterile microbiological box for 20-25 minutes until the suspension was completely dry. After the suspension was completely dry, the infected surface of the Petri dish was treated with the IOON MED device.&nbsp; To establish the safety of the antiseptic synthesized by the IOON MED device, as well as to determine its effectiveness <em>in vivo</em>, a study was conducted on white laboratory mice.&nbsp; For the study, 30 healthy, young, linear white mice of both sexes were selected. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each, each group was isolated in a cage, separately from the main population and other groups. The study was conducted to model purulent peritonitis in experimental animals according to FDA recommendations. Animals in experimental group were injected with a lethal (LD<sub>100</sub>) dose of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> intraperitoneally and 4 hours after the administration of the bacterial suspension, 1 ml of freshly synthesized IOON MED antiseptic at the maximum titer was injected and the animals were monitored for 24 hours, after which mortality in the group was recorded. <strong>Results and discussion</strong>. In fact, the antiseptic generated by the IOON MED device exhibits properties similar to the control products on the market. All antiseptic solutions generated by devices 1-5 showed antimicrobial activity against <em>S. aureus</em> - no staphylococcal growth was observed on the Petri dishes, while the control showed classic bacterial growth. On Petri dishes treated with test solutions from the IOON MED device (1-5), the growth of single colonies is observed, just as in the control groups, where Petri dishes with microorganisms were treated with hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine. The control hydrogen peroxide did not actually affect the biofilm and did not differ from the control, while chlorhexidine, similarly to the IOON MED solution samples, caused the death of all microorganisms in the biofilms. Thus, test groups 1-5 are statistically significantly different from the control group in terms of the degree of antimicrobial effect, while no statistical differences were observed from the effect of chlorhexidine. For samples 2, 3, 5, the titer of antimicrobial action was 1:64. For sample 4, the titer was 1:128. Thus, it can be reliably stated that the average titer of activity of the antiseptic solution generated by IOON MED based on the results of a twofold dilution of the solution is at least 1:64. In the group of mice that were injected with 1 ml of IOON MED antiseptic solution 3 hours after infection, 6 animals died, while in the control group of untreated mice all 10 animals died. The difference in the groups is statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. The solution generated by the electrochemical device IOON MED is able to kill bacteria inside the biofilm formed on a fragment of the endotracheal tube by the multidrug-resistant strain <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> 718. Of the controls, only chlorhexidine showed antiseptic properties against bacteria inside biofilms. There is no statistical difference between the effectiveness of chlorhexidine and the test solutions 1-5. For the solutions generated by the electrochemical device IOON MED, titers were established - the maximum twofold dilutions that showed antiseptic properties. The average titer was 1:64, for individual samples 1:128 for multidrug-resistant <em>S. aureus</em>.&nbsp; The antiseptic solution generated by the IOON MED device showed statistically significant therapeutic antimicrobial activity in a model of purulent peritonitis in mice.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>. Antiseptic, electrochemical, antimicrobial, titer, peritonitis model in mice, atomic hydrogen, active chlorine</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute (Information letter) A method for increasing the antimicrobial activity of nisin 2024-06-14T17:14:15+03:00 Artur Martynov Oksana Knish Tetyana Osolodchenko Olena Batrak <p>The compositions showed antimicrobial activity on <em>S. aureus </em>strain № <em>218</em> and <em>S. pyogenes </em>strain № <em>105</em>, which were resistant to all the studied antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. Growth inhibition zones around the wells (well method) ranged from 15 mm to 20 mm when the well was injected with the finished composition of nisin, amlodipine and diclofenac. In the control, where only auxiliary substances (molding agents and solubilizers) were used without diclofenac, amlodipine and nisin, no growth retardation zone was observed. &nbsp;Thus, a pharmaceutical composition containing nisin 0.1-0.5% (w/w), diclofenac sodium 0.2-1.0%, and amlodipine mesylate 0.05-0.15% has a broader spectrum of action on Gram-positive strains of microorganisms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nisin, Diclophenac, Amlodipin, co-cultivation, solid media, taurine, multiresistant microorganisms, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>, well method</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute (Information sheet) A method of accelerating germination and growth of probiotic spore bacteria 2024-06-14T17:23:50+03:00 Оксана Knysh Artur Martynov Nadiia Skliar <p>Co-cultivation of <em>Heyndrickxia coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Alkalihalobacillus clausii</em> on nutrient agar with 0.5 % taurine and 1.0 % tomato paste (in terms of the finished medium) leads to a twofold acceleration (from 48 hours to 24 hours) of the appearance of the first colonies (spore germination) and increases the size and number of colonies during cultivation. In addition, the obtained biomass has direct antagonistic properties against the control microorganisms: <em>P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, P. vulgaris</em>, which is explained by the presence of bacteriocins (monocultures of probiotic bacilli do not have such properties).</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Heyndrickxia coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Alkalihalobacillus clausii</em><em>, </em>co-cultivation, solid media, taurine, tomato extract, bacteriocins, antagonism.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute (Information letter) A model of virus decontamination for vaccine production 2024-06-14T17:31:57+03:00 Svitlana Kalinichenko Artur Martynov Khrystyna Melentyeva Tetiana Antusheva <p>To obtain such vaccinal antigen, it is necessary to obtain the purest possible virus suspension (in our case, the model of the anti-pyogenic bacteriophage PioFag) as a candidate for inactivation and production of the antigenic complex. Photosensitizers are added sequentially to the bacteriophage (virus) suspension: from 2*10<sup>-4</sup> % to 2*10<sup>-6</sup> % riboflavin, from 2*10<sup>-4</sup> % to 2*10<sup>-6</sup> % riboflavin menadione sodium sulfate and from 2*10<sup>-4</sup> % to 2*10<sup>-6</sup> % pyridoxine hydrochloride according to the following calculation. The solution is incubated with photosensitizers for 5 minutes at room temperature to intercalate the substances in RNA/DNA, and then irradiated for 2-15 minutes with ultraviolet (λ = 210-360 nm) and/or blue light (λ = 450 nm). One drop of samples (10 μL) of inactivated bacteriophages (viruses) is applied in a Petri dish to a daily culture of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> that has shown high sensitivity to the test bacteriophage, incubated for a day. Then, the presence or absence of a zone of bacterial growth inhibition around the droplet with the inactivated phage is recorded. With complete inactivation of bacteriophages in the suspension on the Petri dish, there are no traces of sample application, no growth retardation zones. Taking into account the fact that endogenous completely harmless substances riboflavin, menadione and pyridoxine are used for virus disinfection and there are no chemical additives, toxic mixtures, etc., the obtained antigens do not require additional purification or even the study of each sample for toxicity and reactivity, which provides significant advantages of the photodynamic method compared to others. This technology simplifies and makes more accessible and inexpensive the very possibility of obtaining vaccines from viruses and microorganisms, reduces the time for their preparation, as it eliminates the need for chemical additives with subsequent purification of the finished product. Experimental study of the optimal parameters for the use of a unified method of photodynamic inactivation of various bacteriophages, staphylococcal, antiseptic, and pyophage, confirmed the completeness of virus inactivation: inability to "reverse" and preservation of virion viability. The method of obtaining viral vaccine candidates without loss of antigenic structure and preservation of immunogenicity, tested on the bacteriophage model, can be successful in obtaining similar preparations for the development of domestic antiviral vaccines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: viruses’ inactivation, vaccines, photosensitive vitamins, photodynamic method</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute