Annals of Mechnikov's Institute AMI is an open-access and peer-reviewed journal with a transdisciplinary focus on medicine (microbiology and immunology) and pharmacy. It is fee-free journal for authors with free open access to PDF full-format articles. State institution "I. Mechnikov Institute of Microbiology and Immunology of NAMSU" en-US Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2519-4224 Nutraceutical components of blueberries for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy <p>Diabetic retinopathy, as a severe complication of diabetes, is the main cause of vision loss. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for diabetic retinopathy that would prevent the progression or reversal of vision loss caused by photoreceptor degeneration and retinal ganglion cell death. For the treatment of diabetic retinopathy non-pharmacological intervention methods are used – laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy, but only in the late stages of the disease, therefore the search and research of new drugs, especially of plant origin, for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in the early stages of its development are relevant. Anthocyanins – flavonoid compounds obtained from food plants show excellent pharmacological properties due to the simultaneous effect on numerous metabolic pathways and can act as an alternative to other treatment methods and prevent the further development of the disease. This review summarizes the results of research on blueberry anthocyanins, which demonstrate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-apoptotic activity and other pharmacological properties due to the simultaneous effect on numerous metabolic pathways and can act as an alternative to other treatment methods and prevent the further development of diabetic retinopathy. Blueberry anthocyanins have the potential to prevent the progression of diabetic retinopathy and may be considered as candidates for clinical trials for drugs development. However, further human studies using both blueberry extracts and individual anthocyanins are needed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> diabetic retinopathy, oxidative stress, macular edema, blueberry anthocyanins.</p> Serhii Oliinyk Vasyl Humeniuk Petro Oliinyk Anna Rybachuk Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 3 12 10.5281/zenodo.10838691 Selection of antimicrobial substances in the rectal cream composition containing thick extract of carrot and rutin <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. Synthetic preservatives can significantly extend the shelf life of a perishable product, although they have many side effects that are harmful to human health. In view of this, there is a current trend towards the use of preservatives made from natural plant products. According to the literature, natural substances are widely used as effective preservatives. Regulatory authorities that control the quality, safety and efficacy of medicines pay great attention to natural substances that can be used in the pharmaceutical industry, which will reduce the risk of side effects.</p> <p>A rectal cream with a thick extract of sowing carrot and rutin is being developed at the Department of Industrial Technology of Drugs, National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv. It is known that the properties of flavonols and their glycosides are actively studied for their antimicrobial activity. Rutin has been found to inhibit the growth of <em>Escherichia coli</em>, inhibit the vital activity of <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>, <em>Shigella sonnei</em> and <em>Klebsiella</em> sp., and has antimicrobial activity against <em>Pseudomonas auruginosssa </em>and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>. Due to inhibition of DNA isomerase IV, it inhibits the activity of <em>E. coli</em>. Rutin synergistically enhances the antibacterial activity of other flavonoids against <em>Bacillus cereus </em>and<em> Salmonella enteritidis</em>, and has antifungal activity against <em>Candida gattii</em> strain with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 60 μg/ml. Samples of rectal cream with rutin and thick carrot extract without and with the addition of various antimicrobial agents were tested. <strong>Material &amp; methods.</strong> The objects of the study were : Microcare PE (Phenoxyethanol) 1%, Sharomix 702 (Dehydroacetic Acid, Benzoic Acid, Phenoxyethanol) ( 1.35%), Sharomix MCI II (Methylchloroisothiazolinone, Methylisothiazolinone and Benzyl Alcohol) 0.1%, Sharomix 300 (Me, Pr-paraben, Bronopol, Phenoxyethanol) 0.7%, Sharomix Amplify AM-25 (Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin, Caprylyl Glycol, Didecyldimonium chloride) 0.5%, Sharomix EG10 (EthylHexylGlycerin, Phenoxyethanol) 1.1%, SharoSENSE Plus 181 (Maltol, Polyquaternium-80) 0.5%. A sample of rectal cream with and without added preservatives was studied. <strong>Results &amp; discussion. </strong>The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the studied preservatives for <em>E. coli </em>culture were determined using the method of serial dilutions. The efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives was tested, the growth properties of culture media were checked, and the suitability of the method for determining the total number of viable cells was verified. The efficacy of SharoSENSE Plus 181 and Sharomix Amplify AM-25 in the composition of rectal cream was investigated. The compliance of the obtained results with the requirements of the SFU for drugs for rectal use was established. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>It was found that the most effective were SharoSENSE Plus 181 and Sharomix Amplify AM-25, which showed an inhibitory effect at a concentration of 480 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. It was found that the culture media were suitable for growth properties in accordance with the requirements of SFU 2.6 (2.6.12), and the test microorganisms corresponded to the taxonomic characteristics - the morphology of colonies on culture media and cell morphology during microscopy were typical for the corresponding strain. Taking into account the requirements of safety, economy and physicochemical properties, SharoSENSE Plus 181 at a concentration of 0.5% was chosen as the most acceptable preservative.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> antimicrobial substances, rectal cream, composition, thick extract of carrot, rutin, minimum inhibitory concentrations, effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives</p> Mohammad Al Sayasneh Olena Ruban Inna Kovalevska Natalia Khokhlenkova Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 13 17 10.5281/zenodo.10838408 Study of the elemental composition of rhizome with roots of horse sorrell <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Macro- and microelements are one of the most important groups of biologically active substances, the deficiency of which in the body leads to disruption of the immune system, hematopoietic system, and metabolism. Horse sorrel is an invasive plant that is widespread and does not require special growing conditions. The underground organs of the plant are used in traditional medicine and they contain tannins, anthracene derivatives, organic acids, polyphenolic compounds, anthocyanins, carbohydrates. It is known that the presence of such elements as potassium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil effects on the growth of the horse sorrel, but we did not find modern studies on the study of the elemental composition of plant raw materials that grow wild in soils without fertilizers. Therefore, the study of the elemental composition of rhizomes with roots of horse sorrel, which grows in natural conditions in different regions of Ukraine, is relevant. <strong>The purpose</strong> of the work is to study the elemental composition of rhizomes with roots of horse sorrel, which grows wild in different regions of Ukraine. M<strong>aterials and methods.</strong> It was used rhizomes with the roots of horse sorrel for the research. Elemental analysis was carried out using the atomic emission spectrographic method with photographic registration on the DFS-8 device. <strong>Results and discussion. </strong>It was determined the quantitative content of 15 elements: 5 macro- and 10 micro-elements in five series of the wild plant raw material of horse sorrel. It is observed the following pattern of accumulation of macroelements in all series: K&gt;Ca&gt;Na&gt;Mg&gt;P. The highest content is characteristic of K and Ca. The P content in all series was the lowest. The following regularity is observed in the range of identified microelements for 5 series of plant raw materials: Si&gt; Fe&gt; Al&gt; Mn. Content of Mo and Pb were in minor amounts in all series of plant raw materials. The amount of as is beyond the sensitivity of the device. The content of toxic elements is within the limits stipulated by the requirements of <strong>SPhU</strong> 2.0. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>It was studied the elemental composition of 5 series of rhizomes with the roots of wild species of horse sorrel which grows in different regions of Ukraine. The quantitative content of 15 elements was determined: 5 – macro- and 10 microelements. It was established that the content of macroelements K and Ca and microelement Si dominates in 5 series. The content of Pb was &lt;0.03mg/100g, and As is beyond the sensitivity of the device. The obtained results will be taken into account when a tincture from the rhizomes with the roots of horse sorrel be create.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: horse sorrel, rhizomes with the roots, elemental composition</p> Tetyana Oproshanska Olha Khvorost Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 18 20 10.5281/zenodo.10839035 Experimental studies on selection of optimal gelling agent and its rational concentration in composition of vaginal gel with essential oils <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>.</strong> The deterioration of the demographic situation is one of the main problems of Ukraine. From 2008 to 2021, the country's population had decreased by 4.5 million, which is associated not only with the economic state of the country, but also with the state of women's health. Reproductive health is significantly affected by infectious diseases of the genital organs of women. One such disease is vaginal candidiasis [3,9].Due to the wide spread of this disease and its tendency to relapse, an important place in the complex of measures for its treatment is given to local intravaginal administration of drugs. In this regard, it is rational to use semisolid dosage forms (SDF), namely vaginal gels, which are able to tightly contact with the vaginal mucosa and quickly release active pharmaceutical ingredients at the site of application [4].The Department of Industrial Technology of Drugs of the National University of Pharmacy is developing the composition and technology of a new gel for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, which contains essential oils of tea tree, lavender, and lactic acid. Essential oils provide a wide range of antibacterial and antifungal activity. The use of lactic acid allows maintaining a normal pH level of the mucous membranes of the female genital organs, and at the same time, the vital activity of lactobacilli, which suppress the pathogens of most female diseases [5].One of the main issues in the development of the gel is the choice of the gelling agent and its rational concentration. To conduct experimental studies on the selection of the optimal gelling agent in the composition of the vaginal gel, experimental samples have been made with gelling agents approved for medical use: Aristoflex AVC (Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate / VP Copolymer) - France, Clariant, Licigel – Sodium acrylates copolymer (and) Lecithin) – France, Lucas Meyer, Sepimax ZEN (Polyacrylate Crosspolymer-6) - Seppic, France. <strong>The purpose of this work</strong> was to choose the optimal gelling agent and its concentration in the composition of the developed vaginal gel based on organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological and structural-mechanical studies.<strong>Materials and methods.</strong> Using data from scientific literature, gelling agents Aristoflex AVC, Licigel and Sepimax ZEN were used in the composition of the samples at a concentration of 2%.<strong>The antimicrobial and antifungal activity</strong> of the test samples was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method (the "wells" method). As test cultures pure cultures were used: gram-positive microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25293, spore culture Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, gram-negative cultures Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. During the experiments, one-day suspensions of bacterial microorganisms and two-day suspensions of fungi in physiological saline were used. Microbial overload was 10<sup>7</sup> microbial cells in 1 mL of nutrient medium [1,2]. <strong>The rheological characteristics</strong> of the model samples were measured on a rotational viscometer Myr 3000 V2R (Viscotech, Spain) in a system of coaxial cylinders following the SPU method (2.2.10) in a wide range of shear rates. The study was carried out at a temperature of (37 ± 0.1) °C. Based on the measurement results, rheograms of the dependence of the shear (r) on the gradient of the shear rate (Dr) were built. <strong>The determination of the homogeneity</strong> of the analyzed eyes was carried out according to the methodology induced in DFU 1.0, p.511.<strong>Determination of colloidal stability.</strong> (GOST 29188.3-91 "Cosmetic products. Methods for determining the stability of emulsions"). The tubes, 2/3 filled with the sample, were placed in a water bath at a temperature of 45 ± 2°C for 20 min, after which they were centrifuged for 5 min at a speed of 6000 rpm. Stability was determined visually, in the presence of stratification - unstable, without changes - stable. <strong>Determination of thermal stability</strong>. (GOST 29188.3-91 "Cosmetic products. Methods for determining the stability of emulsions"). For determination, 5-6 glass test tubes with a diameter of 15 mm and a height of 150 mm were taken. The test tubes were filled with test samples (8-10) ml and placed in a thermostat brand TS-80M-2 with a temperature of 42.5±2.5 °C for 7 days. After that, the samples were transferred for 7 days to a refrigerator with a temperature of (6±2)°C and then kept at room temperature for 3 days. Stability was determined visually: if no delamination was observed in one tube, the sample was considered stable.<strong>Determination of the pH of aqueous gel solutions.</strong> The pH level of the studied samples was determined potentiometrically in accordance with the SPU method 2.0, Volume 1, p.2.2.3, p. 51–53. We used the pH-150 МІ device. <strong>Results and discussion.</strong> The microbiological, structural-mechanical and organoleptic properties of vaginal gel samples with Aristoflex AVC, Licigel and Sepimax™ ZEN gelling agents have been studied. It has been established that the sample with Aristoflex AVC has good sensory properties: soft structure, is quickly and well adsorbed from the mucous membrane without leaving a feeling of stickiness and oily sheen, and also has a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic type of flow. The influence of different concentrations of Aristoflex AVC on rheological properties and microbiological activity has been studied.<strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>s</strong><strong>.</strong> Based on the results of the experimental studies, Aristoflex AVC gelling agent at a concentration of 1% was chosen as the basis for the gel and the microbiological activity has been studied.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong><strong>: </strong>vaginal gel, gelling agent, organoleptic, microbiological, rheological and physicochemical studies.</p> Iryna Kryklyva Olena Ruban Tetyana Ponomarenko Larysa Bоbrytska Vita Grytsenko Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 21 26 10.5281/zenodo.10838914 Study of the carbohydrate composition in the underground organs of the couch grass <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Today in Ukraine there is a tendency to expand scientific research on the study of medicinal plants. According to the literature, plants are a source of primary and secondary metabolites that have a wide spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic effects [1-5]. One of the plants, the use of which is recommended for the prevention of various diseases, is couch grass (<em>Agropyron repens</em> L.). <em>Agropyron repens</em> is a perennial herbaceous plant with a strong rhizome. Couch grass is common in Europe and Asia, and is also found in Africa. The plant is traditionally used as a mild diuretic and pain reliever for diseases of the urinary tract (cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis). It is known that couch grass also exhibits hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Couch grass contains carbohydrates, mucous substances, pectin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, phytoncides, essential oil (0.01-0.02%), vanillin, vanillin glycoside (vanilloside), phenolic acids and silicic acid. It is known that the underground organs of the plant accumulate substances of primary synthesis - carbohydrates. The study of the quantitative content and qualitative composition of carbohydrates of rhizomes and roots of couch grass is expedient due to the fact that these compounds, in addition to important functional value and specific pharmacological activity, also affect the development of the total pharmacological effect of drugs obtained from plant raw materials [6]. <strong>The aim of research.</strong> To determine the qualitative composition and quantitative content of the component composition of carbohydrates in the subterranean organs of couch grass. <strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The objects of study were rhizomes and roots of couch grass, which were harvested in the territory of the Rivne region in 2022. To carry out qualitative reactions on polysaccharides (PS), aqueous extracts from medicinal plant raw materials were prepared. 30 g of crushed dry raw materials were poured with 250 ml of hot purified water and infused for a day. The water extracts were filtered, and the raw materials were poured with 100 ml of hot purified water. The operation was repeated 3-5 times. The aqueous extracts were combined and evaporated to 15 ml. The resulting extract was used to detect PS. 30 ml of 95% ethanol was added to 10 ml of the extract. The appearance of floating lamellar clots that precipitated during settling indicated the presence of PS in the studied raw material. The sediment was filtered and a reaction was carried out to detect reducing (neutral) sugars. The sediment was transferred to a test tube and 5 ml of diluted hydrochloric acid was added and boiled for 30 min. 10 ml of Fehling's reagent was added to the cooled hydrolyzate and boiled again. The appearance of a brick-red sediment indicated the presence of renewable sugars [7-8]. The quantitative content of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and pectin substances (PS) in the studied raw materials was determined by the gravimetric method [9-10].</p> <p>The qualitative composition and quantitative content of monosaccharides and sucrose were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method is based on the extraction of free monosugars and the preparation of acetates of their aldonitrile derivatives with further analysis by GC/MS [11]. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent 6890N/5973inert gas chromatography-mass spectrometric system (Agilent Technologies, USA). A HP‑5ms capillary column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 mkm, Agilent Technologies, USA) was used. Identification was carried out by the retention time of monosaccharide standards and using the NIST 02 mass spectrum library. Sample preparation of plant raw materials consisted in the extraction of total and free sugars under different conditions. Quantitative analysis was performed by adding a solution of the internal standard to the tested samples. Sorbitol solution was used as an internal standard [12]. <strong>Results and discussion. </strong>The research results confirmed the presence of polysaccharides in water extracts from underground organs of <em>Agropyron repens</em> L.: with 95% ethanol, the appearance of lamellar clots was observed, which settled down over time; with Fehling's reagent, after acid hydrolysis, the appearance of a brick-red precipitate was noted, which indicated the presence of neutral (reducing) sugars. The polysaccharide complexes of rhizomes and roots of couch grass were studied and the quantitative content of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances was determined. The obtained water-soluble polysaccharides are light brown amorphous powders that dissolve in water (the pH of aqueous solutions was in the range of 5–6). Polysaccharides give a positive result in the precipitation reaction with 96% ethanol and Fehling's reagent after acid hydrolysis. The obtained pectin substances are brown amorphous powders that dissolve in purified water to form colloidal viscous cloudy solutions, the pH of which is 4–5. Aqueous solutions of PS are precipitated with a 1% solution of aluminum sulfate with the formation of pectates. The results of the research indicate that in rhizomes and roots of couch grass, the content of PS is (6.57±0.02) %, and the content of WSP is (5.85±0.02) %. The presence and quantitative content of 8 monosugars after acid hydrolysis was determined in the composition of the polysaccharide complexes of rhizomes and roots of couch grass; 4 free sugars were found - glucose, fructose, inositol and disaccharide sucrose. Among the monosaccharides in the studied raw material, xylose, which was formed after acid hydrolysis, dominated; its highest content was observed in the underground organs of couch grass (39.03 mg/g). Also, the predominant glucose content was observed after acid hydrolysis (27.30 mg/g), and in the free state its content in the rhizomes and roots of the plant was 3.42 mg/g. The content of sucrose in the studied object was 2.14 mg/g. In addition to glucose, the presence of inositol was observed in the composition of free sugars and sugars after acid hydrolysis - 0.37 mg/g and 1.47 mg/g, respectively. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The analysis of the results of the conducted research indicates a high content of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin substances in the rhizomes and roots of couch grass. The composition of sugars of the subterranean organs of the plant is characterized by the predominance in the quantitative ratio of the monosugar xylose and the disugar sucrose. The studied species is promising for use in medical practice and requires extensive phytochemical and pharmacological analysis.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Agropyron repens</em> L., carbohydrates, subterranean organs, GC/MS-chromatography.</p> Tetyana Momot Iryna Dakhym Svitlana Marchyshyn Lyudmila Slobodyaniuk Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 27 31 10.5281/zenodo.10838646 Study of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus l.) Herb <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> In recent years, scientists worldwide have been increasingly focused on searching for new sources of biologically active substances (BAS) with the goal of developing pharmaceuticals based on them. Currently, the study of plant raw materials that have a secured raw material base is of particular relevance. Among such plants, garden snapdragons (<em>Antirrhinum majus</em> L.) from the <em>Plantaginaceae</em> family attract attention. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological and anatomical diagnostic characteristics of garden snapdragon herbs.<strong> Materials and methods</strong>: the object of the study was garden snapdragon herb (<em>Antirrhini majus herba</em>) from the Overture and Snappy cultivar mix. The raw materials were harvested during the flowering phase of the plants in August 2023 in the Kharkiv region (Ukraine). The anatomical structure was studied using a Granum microscope at magnifications of 40-600 times; photography was carried out with a ScienceLab DCM820 camera for microscopes, and photos were processed using TSView 7 and Adobe Photoshop CC 2021. The raw material for anatomical study was fixed in an ethanol – glycerin – water mixture (in a 1:1:1 ratio). For microscopic examination, preparations of the epidermis of the leaf blade, stem, corolla epidermis, calyx, and cross-sections of the stem were prepared. The morphological characteristics of dried raw material samples were determined visually with the naked eye and using a magnifying glass (x10).<strong> Results and discussion.</strong> The morphological diagnostic features attributed to the whole garden snapdragon herb include: cylindrical stems, simple lanceolate leaves arranged alternately at the top of the stem and oppositely at the bottom, with reticulate venation. Zygomorphic flowers are gathered in a spike-like inflorescence. The calyx is pentamerous, divided, with lanceolate sepals that are pubescent. The corolla is bilabiate, with the mouth of the corolla closed by the projection of the lower lip. A sac-like protrusion is present at the base of the tube, with corolla colors ranging from yellow to pink-purple. All components of the raw material are pubescent. The raw material has a weak scent. The anatomical diagnostic features of the studied raw material include: the presence of thickened epidermal cells with a cuticle, anisocytic and anomocytic types of stomatal apparatus, pubescence with glandular and simple hairs, multilayered sclerenchyma, and a non-bundled type of stem structure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Antirrhini majus herba</em>, Snapdragons, morphological characteristics, anatomical characteristics, microscopic examination, raw material standardization</p> Sophya Ilyina Iryna Zhuravel Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 32 38 10.5281/zenodo.10838380 Research on the development of the composition of an extemporaneous medicinal product with dexpanthenol <p>The prevalence of dermatological diseases is one of the problems of medical practice. Against the background of chronic stress disorders during the war, the incidence of contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, fungal lesions, psoriasis and other diseases has been increased. On the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, soft dosage forms occupy approximately 10% among other drugs of industrial production. A large share also belongs to soft medicinal forms of extemporaneous production in Ukraine and abroad. The choice of the basis is depend on the physical and chemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, the pathological process, the method of application and the predicted pharmacological effect. One of the perspective directions of expansion and renewal of the prescription of extemporaneous medicine is the development of soft medicines on emulsion bases. The evolution of atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial process involving immunological defects, skin barrier dysfunction, genetic variation, and environmental factors. Dexpanthenol provides a noticeable moisturizing effect, due to its extremely hygroscopic characteristics, Topical application of dexpanthenol improves skin hydration and reduces trans-epidermal water loss, thus maintaining skin smoothness and elasticity. According to the assessment of average moisture retention for 5 hours, dexpanthenol provides a long-lasting effect of moisturizing tissues</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>dermatological diseases; soft medicinal forms; emulsion</p> Elisabet Zuikina Marina Buriak Svitlana Zuykina Liliia Vyshnevska Svitlana Oleynik Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 39 45 10.5281/zenodo.10838552 Study of economic and technological aspects in the development of medicine from rauwolfiia extract <p>An increase in blood pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). <strong>The purpose</strong> of the study is to study economic and technological aspects in the development of a medicinal preparation with Rauwolfia extract. <strong>Research materials and methods.</strong> Research materials: the data of the State Register of Medicinal Products of Ukraine 2023, unified clinical protocols for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, online system "ShopApotheke". Research methods: frequency, marketing, analytical, comparative analysis and generalization of information. A comparative analysis of the cost calculation of the production of tablets and capsules with dry rauwolfia extract was carried out by the "cost plus" method. <strong>Results and discussion</strong>. As a result of the structural analysis of the ATS classification of drugs and their presence on the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, the presence of groups C02A A04 - the sum of alkaloids from the roots of Rauwolfia was established. It was established that according to the State Register of Ukraine as of 2023 Medicines with an extract of the active ingredient Rauwolfia are presented in the form of tablets - 3 trade names (TN). It has been established that there are special food products on the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, which are represented by 90% solid medicinal forms (MF), among which 50% are tablets and 40% - capsules, and 10% are liquid MF represented by a solution for injections. Among the producing countries, foreign production prevails, which is 80% (70% - India and 10% - Germany) and 20% - national production. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> As a result of the marketing analysis, 3 drugs with an extract of the active substance Rauwolfia were established, which are registered on the territory of Ukraine, of which tablets are 100% of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine. On the market of Ukraine there are special food products with the content of Rauwolfia snake in solid MF - 90% and 10% - liquid. Application of the direct encapsulation method has technological and economic efficiency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> cardiovascular diseases; arterial hypertension; Rauwolfia extract; pharmaceutical market of Ukraine; technology; capsules</p> Viktoria Zlagoda Larisa Bobritska Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 46 53 10.5281/zenodo.10838599 Study of the amino acids of Russell's lisianthus stems, leaves and flowers <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Amino acids have an immunomodulatory, antidepressant effect, they are components of collagen, reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood, take an active part in the synthesis and assimilation of vitamins, etc. Natural amino acids have a higher physiological activity compared to synthetic analogues, because in plant raw material they are found in complexes that are easily assimilated by the human body and in biologically available concentrations. Therefore, the search for new sources of biologically active compounds of plant origin to obtain pharmacologically active substances that contain a large number of amino acids is of great interest and importance. In this regard, an in-depth study of the amino acid composition of a non-officinal plant - Russell's lisianthus (<em>Lisianthus russellianus</em> Hook.) of the Gentianaceae family (<em>Gentianaceae</em> Juss.), which is widely cultivated around the world as an ornamental plant, is promising. <strong>The aim </strong>of the research was to study the qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in Russell's lisianthus stems, leaves and flowers. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> Russell's lisianthus herb of the Borealis Apricot species harvested in August 2023 in the Kharkiv region (Ukraine) was used for the study. Identification and quantification of amino acids in the studied samples of plant raw material was carried out by ion-exchange liquid column chromatography on an amino acid analyzer AAA T-339M manufactured by "Mikrotech" (Czech Republic), equipped with a recording photocell. This technique is based on post-column derivatization of amino acids with ninhydrin. At the same time, interaction products with a characteristic violet (amino acids, wavelength - 570 nm) or yellow (imino acids, wavelength - 440 nm) color are formed. <strong>Results and discussion.</strong> 18 amino acids were identified in Russell's lisianthus stems, leaves and flowers by ion-exchange liquid column chromatography. Their profile is uniform in composition: 7 essential amino acids (lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine), 3 semi-essential (arginine, tyrosine, histidine) and 8 non-essential (aspartic, glutamic acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, serine, glycine, alanine, proline and cystine). The highest content of the sum of amino acids was determined in Russell’s lisianthus leaves (81.9 mg%), somewhat less in the flowers (66.69 mg%), and the lowest content was observed in the stems (36.27 mg%). In terms of content, glutamic and aspartic acids, alanine, proline, leucine dominate in the studied raw materials; GABA, methionine and cystine are contained in minor amounts. &nbsp;Non-essential amino acids predominated in all studied raw materials, but essential amino acids are of the greatest interest to the human body. Their content in Russell's lisianthus stems is 19.52%, in the leaves - 24.37%, and in the flowers - 26.83% of the total amount of amino acids. Among the essential amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, and valine are present in the majority, and valine, isoleucine, and methionine are present in small amounts. &nbsp;<strong>Conclusions</strong>. As a result of the analysis, 18 amino acids were identified in Russell's lisianthus stems, leaves and flowers, of which 7 are essential, 3 are semi-replaceable, and 8 are replaceable. The identified amino acids in the studied raw materials have the same composition but differ in quantitative content. The total amount of detected amino acids is higher in leaves and flowers, and it is minimal in stems. In terms of content, glutamic and aspartic acids, alanine, proline, leucine dominate in the studied raw materials; GABA, methionine and cystine are contained in minor amounts. &nbsp;Thus, the obtained results indicate the biological value of Russell's lisianthus herb and the presence of a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity associated with a fairly high amino acids content.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Russell's lisianthus (<em>Lisianthus russellianus</em> Hook.), stems, leaves, flowers, amino acids, qualitative composition, quantitative content.</p> Anna Olefirenko Viktoria Kyslychenko Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 54 58 10.5281/zenodo.10838856 Systematic analysis of the theoretical arsenal of antihypertensive drugs in Ukraine <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. According to the World Heart Federation (WHF) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) aged 30-79 years has increased from 0.65 billion to 1.28 billion over the past 30 years. At the same time, about 50% of those diagnosed were unaware of the presence of a chronic disease and only 20% of patients had controlled hypertension, so about 17 million people die prematurely every year due to complications of cardiovascular disease. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The objects of the study were: international recommendations and guidelines on pharmacotherapy of hypertension, British National Formulary (BNF), 83rd edition, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, State Register of Medicines (SRM) and State Formulary of Medicines of Ukraine (SFMU), 15th edition. Research methods: content analysis, comparative analysis and generalization of information. <strong>Results of the study. </strong>The analysis of international recommendations and guidelines revealed differences in the recommended treatment regimens for hypertension. In the comparative analysis of the AGEs registered in Ukraine in 2019 and in 2023, 1055 AGEs were analyzed in the 2019 State Register and 967 in the 2023 State Register, which in total include 562 single-, 352 two- and 53 three-component oral AGEs. It was found that during the five-year monitoring period, 109 imported and 109 domestic AGVs were included in the State List of Essential Medicines (taking into account the dose and manufacturer). However, there is a significant difference in the rates of exclusion of specialized medicines from the SMART: 227 imported and 14 domestically produced. The final stage of our study was a comparison of the theoretical arsenal of APIs with the arsenal of APIs available for purchase by outpatients in pharmacies ( was used as a model site) as of October 2023. It was found that of the imported APIs registered in Ukraine, only 48% are available for purchase by outpatients in pharmacies. For domestically manufactured AHLs, this figure is 81%. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>It has been established that differences in the recommended treatment regimens for hypertension in monitoring recommendations and guidelines have a significant impact on the formation of a rational pharmacotherapy process. The significant dynamics of the theoretical arsenal of AGEs in Ukraine over the past 5 years (2019-2023) has been recorded: an increase in the number of domestically produced AGEs in the DRLZ by 43%, and a decrease in the number of imported AGEs by 14%. The ratio between the number of imported and domestically manufactured AEDs available for booking (on the website) is approximately 1:1.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>arsenal of medicines, antihypertensive drugs, marketing analysis, standards of pharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension, anatomical, therapeutic and chemical classification</p> Viktoriia Huz Iwan Revyatskyy Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 59 70 10.5281/zenodo.10838296 Overview of the range of medicines included in the treatment protocol of COVID-19 in Ukraine <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains one of the most important medical and social problems in Ukraine and the world. In connection with the constant mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, medicinal products (drugs), which according to evidence-based medicine showed their effectiveness, after a few months become little or ineffective against new subvariants of the virus. Since the treatment of COVID-19 is mainly symptomatic, and changes in symptoms and manifestations are characteristic of new strains, this requires the use of new drugs. Treatment protocols for COVID-19 are constantly changing and improving: ineffective drugs are removed, and drugs with proven effectiveness against new strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are added. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The research materials were data from the State Regis-ter of Medicinal Products of Ukraine and the information and reference publica-tion "Compendium"; protocol for providing medical assistance in the treatment of COVID-19 in Ukraine, methodological recommendations for the treatment of this disease in the USA and EU countries; instructions for the use of drugs, information on the website An analysis of pharmaceuticals by main active substances (international non-proprietary name (INN)), dosage forms (LP), and producing countries was carried out. System, logical, complex, graphic methods are used.<br />Research results. Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory viral disease, the causative agent of which is the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus. Frequent symptoms of the disease are fever, headache, myalgia, sore throat, dry cough and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, thrombotic phenomena, joining of bacterial infections and viral damage to other organs and systems are possible. In Ukraine, on April 2020, by order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 762, the Protocol for the provision of medical assistance for the treatment of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was approved, which includes treatment schemes for children and adults. During the pandemic, the clinical protocol was changed and improved. During 2020-2023, 13 changes and additions to the treatment protocol were made by order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The range of drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, which are included in the protocol, includes 33 INNs and is represented by 255 trade names, of which 48.6% are produced in Ukraine, and 51.4% are imported. The provision of drug treatment facilities is partly dependent on imports, and therefore the costs of pharmacotherapy are quite high, which requires conducting pharmacoeconomic studies to optimize the costs from the budget for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Import substitution and domestic production of drugs that are included in the Protocol for the treatment of COVID-19 are promising. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: 1. A review of the range of drugs showed that due to frequent mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the development and introduction of new drugs into medical practice, the protocols for the treatment of COVID-19 in Ukraine and the world are constantly changing and improving. New drugs with proven safety and effectiveness are added, and ineffective ones are removed. 2. The range of drugs is presented in the Treatment Protocol of the 33rd INN of 10 ATS groups. The main group of drugs is injectable drugs (57.2%), which is proof that the protocol was developed and used primarily for the treatment of patients in hospital conditions. 3. Analysis of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine showed the presence of 255 trade names of drugs recommended by the protocol. It was found that the range of drugs, in accordance with the Protocol for the treatment of COVID-19, includes 124 (48.6%) drugs of domestic production, and 131 (51.4%) - imported drugs, which indicates the need to produce more drugs of these groups in Ukraine. 4. In connection with the fact that the protocol is designed for the treatment of COVID-19 primarily in hospital conditions, it is necessary to develop and implement a pharmacist's protocol for the purpose of recommending drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated forms of the disease.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: coronavirus disease (COVID-19), treatment protocol, pharmacotherapy, dosage form</p> Olexandr Semenov Olha Zalisska Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Mechnikov's Institute 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 1 71 75 10.5281/zenodo.10838988