Injuries type and its relation with Glasgow Coma Scale, injury severity score and blood transfusion in road traffic accident Victims.
Motor Vehicular Accidents claim about 1.2 million lives and injure more than 10 million people annually worldwide. The injuries caused by MVAs can be analyzed based on the type of injury, injury severity score, Glasgow Coma Scale and required blood transfusion. Methodology: A total number of 190 patients were included in this retrospective study from January 01, 2010 to December 31, 2015. The study aimed to determine the correlation between the type of injuries and GCS, ISS, and blood transfusions in the patients suffering from Motor Vehicle Accidents, who were presented to the Emergency Department at the King Khalid Hospital. All the data of the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were collected from the database at medical records department of the hospital. Results: Majority of the patients were adults Saudi male. 68.9% of the patients did not sustain shock, and 75.8% of patients did not require a blood transfusion. Patients with head, neck, chest, abdominal, internal organ, pelvic or spinal injuries conferred a statistically significant higher mean ISS. Patients with abdominal or internal organ injuries had a statistically significant higher mean units of blood transfused. GCS was seen to be lower in the head, neck, chest, abdominal, internal organ, spinal and other injuries. Conclusions: The study documents a significant correlation between the type of injury and GCS, ISS, and blood transfusion in victims of road traffic accident. Emergency physician and the caregivers should be more careful about the injuries associated with lower GCS. Patients sustaining injuries of certain parts related to high ISS (i.e., head, chest, abdominal, internal organ, pelvic) should be addressed on priority basis.
World Health Organization. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: WHO. 2004;3-29.
Singh R, Singh HK, Gupta SC, Kumar Y. Pattern, Severity and Circumtances of Injuries Sustained in Road Traffic Accidents: A Tertiary Care Hospital-Based Study. ndian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2014;39(1):30-34. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.126353
Nantulya VM, Reich MR. The neglected epidemic: Road traffic injuries in developing countries. British Medical Journal. 2002;324:1139-41.
Lagarde E. Road traffic injury is an escalating burden in Africa and deserves proportionate research efforts. PLoS Medicine. 2007;4:e170.
WHO. Global status report on road safety 2013: supporting a decade of action. Luxembourg: World Health Organisation; 2013.
Ratrout NT, Qesti TM, Al-Ofi K. Safety manual for land transportation between cities in KSA, final revised manual, project No. waw mem 12-1. King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology (KACST). KACST, Riyadh May 2012; 2016.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) 2012. Statistics Department. [cited 2014 Feb] Available from: http://www.gcc-sg.org/eng/.
Saudi Gazette. Traffic accidents: their heavy costs. Editorial. [Updated 2013 Sept 2]. Riyadh (KSA): Saudi Gazette; 2013.
Mansuri FA, Al-Zalabani AH, Zalat MM, Qabshawi RI. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia: a systematic review of existing evidence. Saudi Medical Journal. 2015;36(4):418.
DeNicola E, Aburizaize OS, Siddique A, Khwaja H, Carpenter DO. Road Traffic Injury as a Major Public Health Issue in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Review. Frontiers in Public Health. 2016;4:215. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00215
Al-Atawi AM, Kumar R, Saleh W. Traffic accidents reductions in Saudi Arabia: barriers and the way forward. WASD 12th International Conference, August 2014, Le Meridian Versailles, Montreal, Canada; 2014.
World Health Organization. A Decade Of Action For Road Safety. A brief Planning Document. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization; 2011.
Barrimah I, Midhet F, Sharaf F. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Injuries in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia: Consistency of Police and Health Data. International Journal of Health Sciences (Qassim). 2012;6:31-41.
Lee KW. An analysis of automobile accidents in Riyadh. Institute of Transportation Journal. 1986;56(2):35-39.
Ansari S, Akhdar F, Mandoorah M, Moutaery K. Causes and effects of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. Public Health. 2000;1(114):37-39.
Elander J, West R, French D. Behavioral correlates of individual differences in road-traffic crash risk: an examination method and findings. Psychological Bulletin. 1993;113(2):279-94.
Khan ZU, Al-Asiri KM, Iqbal J. Injury patterns from road traffic accidents. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;26(2):394-7.
Constantinou E, Panayiotou G, Konstantinou N, Loutsiou-Ladd A, Kapardis A. Risky and aggressive driving in young adults: Personality matters. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2011;43:1323-31.
Baker SP, O’Neill B, Haddon W Jr, Long WB. The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. The Journal of Trauma. 1974;14(3):187-96.
Aharonson-Daniel L, Giveon A, Stein M, Israel Trauma Group, Peleg K. Different AIS triplets: different mortality predictions in identical ISS and NISS. The Journal of Trauma. 2006;61:711-7.
Heather NL, Derraik JGB, Beca J, Hofman PL, Dansey R, Hamill J, et al. Glasgow Coma Scale and Outcomes after Structural Traumatic Head Injury in Early Childhood. Plos One. 2013;8(12):e82245.
Ferrando J, Plase`ncia A, Ricart I, Canaleta X, Segui-Gomez M. Motor-vehicle injury patterns in emergency-department patients in a south-European urban setting. Annual Proceedings. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. 2000;44:445-58.
Tischer A. Uber den Einfluss geanderter Fahrzeugfronten von PKWs auf die erlittenen Verletzungsmuster bei tödlich verlaufenden Fussgänger-PKW Frontalkollisionen in Berlin (1978–1985 im Vergleich zu 1991–2004). [Promotion]. Berlin: University of Berlin; 2008.
Eid HO, Abu-Zidan FM. Biomechanics of road traffic collision injuries: a clinician’s perspective. Singapore Medocal Journal. 2007;48(7):693-700.
Landy DC, Norton RA, Barkin JA, Henriques S, Owens P, Miki RA. Upper extremity fractures in pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents: an underappreciated concern. The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal. 2010;30:99-102.
Peng RY, Bongard FS. Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents: an analysis of 5000 patients. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 1999;189(4):343-8.
Cirera E, Plasencia A, Ferrando J, Segui-Gomez M. Factors associated with severity and hospital admission of motor-vehicle injury cases in a southern European urban area. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;17(3):201-8.
Patil SS, Kakade R, Durgawale P, Kakade S. Pattern of Road Traffic Injuries: A Study From Western Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2008;33(1):56-57. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.39248
Martin J-L, Lardy A, Laumon B. Pedestrian Injury Patterns According to Car and Casualty Characteristics in France. Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine / Annual Scientific Conference. 2011;55:137-46.
Al-Shammari N, Bendak S, Al-Gadhi S. In-depth analysis of pedestrian crashes in Riyadh. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2009;10(6):552-9.
Mansuri FA, Al-Zalabani AH, Zalat MM, Qabshawi RI. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence. Saudi Medical journal. 2015;36(4):418-24.
Barrimah I, Midhet F, Sharaf F. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia: consistency of police and health data. International Journal of health Sciences. 2012;6(1):31-41.
Curry P, Ramaiah R, Vavilala MS. Current trends and update on injury prevention. International Journal of Critical illness & Injury Science. 2011;1(1):57-65.
Al-Naami MY, Arafah MA, Al-Ibrahim FS. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2010;30(1):50-58.
Batouk AN, Abu-Eisheh N, Abu-Eshy S, Al-Shehri M, Al-Naami M, Jastaniah S. Analysis of 303 road traffic accident victims seen dead on arrival at emergency room - Assir Central Hospital. Journal of Family and Community Medicine. 1996;3(1):29-34.
Singh R, Singh HK, Gupta SC, Kumar Y. Pattern, severity and circumtances of injuries sustained in road traffic accidents: a tertiary care hospital-based study. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2014;39(1):30-34.
Farooqui JM, Chavan KD, Bangal RS, Aarif Syed MM, Thacker PJ, Alam S, Sahu S, Farooqui AA, Kalakoti P. Pattern of injury in fatal road traffic accidents in a rural area of western Maharashtra, India. Australasian Medical Journal. 2013;6(9):476-82.
Shanks NJ, Ansari M, Ai-Kalai D. Traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. Public Health. 1994;108(1):27-34.
Beavogui K, Koivogui A, Loua TO, Balde R, Diallo B, Diallo AR, et al. Traumatic brain injury related to motor vehicle accidents in guinea: impact of treatment delay, access to healthcare, and patient's financial capacity on length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. Journal of vascular and Interventional Neurology. 2015;8(4):30-38.
Majdan M, Mauritz W, Wilbacher I, Janciak I, Brazinova A, Rusnak M, Leitgeb J. Traumatic brain injuries caused by traffic accidents in five European countries: outcome and public health consequences. European Journal of Public Health. 2013;23(4):682-7.
Koo M, Otero I, Sabate A, Martinez R, Mauro A, Garcia P, Lopez S. Do the severity and the body region of injury correlate with long-term outcome in the severe traumatic patient? Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology. 2014;64(2):134-9.