DOI: https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2018.3(part1).142330

Computer mouse, keyboard and carpal tunnel syndrome.

V. I. Berezutsky

Abstract


The article aims to analyze scientific publications of recent years on the problem of carpal tunnel syndrome in computer users. To achieve the aim, the search was carried out in the science-based databases Scopus, WebOfScience and PubMed for 2015-2018. The results suggest that repeated movements of the wrist lead to overstrain of the ligaments of the wrist and neuropathy of the median nerve in almost 15% of professional users of computers and gamers. Early diagnosis is possible with ultrasound examination of the carpal tunnel and electrophysiological examination of the median nerve in occupational risk groups. In severe carpal tunnel syndrome, only surgical treatment is effective, and physiotherapy methods for moderate and light forms. The most effective prevention strategy is to improve the ergonomics of the workplace for professional computer users, short breaks in work to relax the muscles of the hand, and various physical exercises to improve the circulation of blood and lymph in the carpal tunnel. The popularization of the latest advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of carpal tunnel syndrome among practitioners will help to increase the effectiveness of medical care in this disease.


Keywords


carpal tunnel syndrome; overstrain syndrome; occupational diseases; ergonomics

References


Baute V, Keskinyan VS, Sweeney ER et al. A randomized, controlled trial of magnetic therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & nerve. – 2018. Ar­ticles in Press. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26120

Schmid AB, Kubler PA, Johnston V et al. A ver­tical mouse and ergonomic mouse pads alter wrist posi­tion but do not reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Applied ergonomics. 2015;47:151-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2014.08.020

Agrawal S, Rajajeyakumar M. Early Diagnosis and Prevention of Repetitive Strain Injury Induced Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Computer Users. Clin Exp Psychol. 2018;4(1):188-191. http://doi.org/10.4172/2471-2701.1000188

Milone MT, Karim A, Klifto CS et al. Analysis of Expected Costs of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Treatment Strategies. HAND. 2017: 1558944717743597. http://doi.org/10.1177/1558944717743597

Jerosch-Herold C, Houghton J, Blake J. et al. As­so­ciation of psychological distress, quality of life and costs with carpal tunnel syndrome severity: a cross-sec­tional analysis of the PALMS cohort. BMJ open. 2017;(7)11:1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017732.

Bland JDP. Hydrodissection for treatment of car­pal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & nerve. 2018;57(1):4-5. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25759

Brown JN. Stop Your Mouse from Twisting Your Arm. Anthropology-Based Computing. Springer, Cham, 2016;175-188. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24421-1_14

Calandruccio JH, Thompson NB. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Making Evidence-Based Treatment Decisions. Orthopedic Clinics. 2018;49(2):223-229. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2017.11.009

Almasi-Doghaee M, Boostani R, Saeedi M et al. Carpal compression, Phalen’s and Tinel’s test: Which one is more suitable for carpal tunnel syndrome? Iranian journal of neurology. 2016;15(3):173-174.

Padua L, Coraci D, Erra C et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, and mana­gement. The Lancet Neurology. 2016;15(12):1273-1284. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30231-9

Huisstede BM, Hoogvliet P, Franke TP et al. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Effectiveness of Physical Therapy and Electrophysical Modalities. An Updated Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Archi­ves of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2017. Articles in Press. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.08.482

Chae W, Jung J. The Effects of Computer Game Exposure on Musculoskeletal Pathological Symptoms in Adolescents. Koreyan Jornal of Sport Biomechanics. 2018;28(1):55-60.

Babaei-Ghazani A, Nikbakht N, Forogh B et al. Comparison Between Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection Above Versus Below the Median Nerve in Mild to Moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. American journal of phy­sical medicine & rehabilitation. 2018;97(6):407-413. http://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000877

Bhanderi DJ, Mishra DG, Parikhet SM et al. Computer Use and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case-control Study. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 2017;21(3):109-114. http://doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_66_17

Watanabe T, Sugiura Y, Miyata N et al. Dan­ceDanceThumb: Tablet app for rehabilitation for carpal tunnel syndrome. International Conference on Entertain­ment Computing. Springer, Cham, 2017:473-476. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66715-7_66

Eraslan L, Baltaci G, Yuce D et al. Does Taping Af­fect the Rehabilitation of Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndro­me? A Randomized Controlled Trial. HAND. 2016:11(1):133-7.

Durham CO, VanRavenstein K. It's All in the Wrist: Diagnosis and Management of Carpal Tunnel Syn­drome. Orthopaedic Nursing. 2017;36(5):323-327. http://doi.org/10.1097/NOR.0000000000000390

Manoharan T, Yusuff R, Zulkifli N et al. Effect of Break Time on the Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Development among Intensive Computer Users in Malaysia. Life Sciences, Medicine and Biomedicine. 2018;2(1):1-8. http://doi.org/10.28916/lsmb.2.1.2018.7

Alam M, Khan M, Ahmed SI. et al. Effec­tiveness of neural mobilization and ultrasound therapy on pain se­verity in carpal tunnel syndrome. Biomedical Research and Therapy. 2018;5(4):2187-2193. http://doi.org/10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.432

Ballestero-Pérez R, Plaza-Manzano G, Urraca-Gesto A et al. Effectiveness of nerve gliding exercises on carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review. Journal of Ma­nipulative & Physiological Therapeutics. 2017;40(1)50-59.

Sako S, Sugiura H, Tanoue H et al. Electromyographic analysis of relevant muscle groups during completion of computer tasks using different computer mouse positions. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 2017;23(2):267-273. http://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2016.1275140

Liu BS, Huang KN, Chen HJ et al. Ergonomic evaluation of new wrist rest on using computer mouse. Advanced Materials for Science and Engineering (ICAMSE), International Conference on. IEEE, 2016:59-61. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICAMSE.2016.7840230

Habibi E, Mohammadi Z, Sartang AG et al. Ergo­nomic assessment of musculoskeletal disorders risk among the computer users by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment method. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering. 2016;5(1):15-22. http://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9183.190641

Nazari G, MacDermid JC, Bain J et al. Estimation of health-related-quality of life depends on which utility measure is selected for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Hand Therapy. 2017;30(3):299-306. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2016.11.001

Gaudez C, Cail F. What’s the best computer mouse? A comparative study of wrist angles and carp extensor activity when using three mice. Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering. 2017;20(sup1):89-90. http://doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2017.1382875

Guner A, Altan L, Aksoy MK. The effecti­veness of the low-power laser and kinesiotaping in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, a pilot study. Rheumatology international. 2018;38(5):895-904. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-018-4020-6

Li Z, Chen L, Zhu Y et al. Handheld electrical im­pedance myography probe for assessing carpal tunnel syn­drome. Annals of biomedical engineering. 2017;45(6):1572-1580. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-017-1819-3

Sahebari M, Rad MP, Nahayatiet MA et al. High-resolution ultrasonography of cross-sectional area of me­dian nerve compared with electro-diagnostic study in car­pal-tunnel syndrome. Rheumatology Research. 2017;2(4):127-131. http://doi.org/10.22631/RR.2017.69997.1031

Johnson ME, Conrardy B, Kohama Z et al. Re­petitive Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Risks Utilizing Wearable Sensor Arm Band versus Keyboard and Mouse for Input. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings. – Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE), 2017:1332-8.

Joshi VS. Nerve muscle physiology changes with yoga in professional computer users. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7(8):815-819. http://doi.org/10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0410002042017

Kargar N, Choobineh AR, Choobineh AR et al. Posture and discomfort assessment in computer users while using touch screen device as compared with mouse-keyboard and touch pad-keyboard. Work. 2018;59(3):341-349. http://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-182685

Lee HJ, Lim HS, Kim HS. Validation of known risk factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: A ret­ro­spective nationwide 11-year population-based cohort stu­dy in South Korea. bioRxiv. 2018:1-25. http://doi.org/10.1101/253666

Loh PY, Yeoh WL, Nakashima H et al. Impact of keyboard typing on the morphological changes of the me­dian nerve. Journal of occupational health. 2017;59(5):408-417. http://doi.org/10.1539/joh.17-0058-OA

Loh PY, Yeoh WL, Muraki S. The Effect of Keyboard Typing on the Median Nerve at the Proximal Carpal Tunnel. The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics. 2017;53(Suppl.2):576-579. http://doi.org/10.5100/jje.53.S576

Park DY, Kang S, Jeong JS et al. Muscle echo­genicity ratio can indicate severity of carpal tunnel syn­drome. Muscle & nerve. 2018. Articles in Press. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26116

Pachoulakis I, Tsilidi D, Analyti A. Computer-Aided Rehabilitation for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome using Exergames. Advances in Image and Video Pro­ces­sing. 2018;6(2):44-56. http://doi.org/10.14738/aivp.62.4458

Tulipan JE, Lutsky KF, Maltenfort MG et al. Patient-Reported Disability Measures Do Not Correlate with Electrodiagnostic Severity in Carpal Tunnel Syn­dro­me. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open. 2017;5(8):1-6. http://doi.org/10.1097/GOX.00000000001440

Nuckols TK, Conlon C, Robbins M et al. Quality of Care and Patient‐reported Outcomes in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study. Muscle & nerve. 2018;57(6):896–904. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26041

Ginanneschi F, Mondelli M, Aretini A et al. Reappraisal of the F/M amplitude ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome. Functional neurology. 2017;32(1):23-27. http://doi.org/10.11138/FNeur/2017.32.1.023

Raeissadat SA, Karimzadeh A, Hashemi M et al. Safety and efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome; a randomized controlled trial. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2018;19(1):49-44. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-1963-4

Shiri R, Falah-Hassani K. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2015;349(1):15-19. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2014.12.037

Pekel NB, Senol PN, Yildiz D et al. The diagnostic efficacy of clinical findings and electrophysiological studies in carpal tunnel syndrome. The European Re­search Journal. 2017;3(1):62-67. http://doi.org/10.18621/eurj.2017.5000195868

Roquelaure Y, Fouquet N, Chazelle E et al. Theoretical impact of simulated workplace-based primary prevention of carpal tunnel syndrome in a French region. BMC public health. 2018;18(1):426-437. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5328-6

Ural FG, Оzturk GT. The Acupuncture Effect on Median Nerve Morphology in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Ultrasonographic Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017;2017:1-6. http://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7420648

Vignais N, Weresch J, Keir PJ. Posture and loa­ding in the pathomechanics of carpal tunnel syndrome: a review. Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering. 2016;44(5):397-410. http://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevBio­medEng.2017021073

Weresch JA, Keir PJ. Development of an Ergo­nomic Tool to Predict Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Risk Based on Estimated Carpal Tunnel Pressure. IISE Trans­actions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors. 2018;6(1):32-42.

Werner RA, Franzblau A. How can we best estimate the Incidence and Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? Muscle & nerve. 2018;57(7):1–11. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26148

Baker NA, Stevans J, Terhorst L et al. What Types of Treatment Are Provided for Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Insurance. PM&R. 2018. Articles in Press. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.02.004

Woo EHC, White P, Lai CWK. Effects of elec­tronic device overuse by university students in relation to clinical status and anatomical variations of the median nerve and transverse carpal ligament. Muscle & nerve. 2017;56(5):873-880. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25697

Zhu M, Adams W, Polygerinos P. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Soft Relief Device for Typing Applications. 2017 Design of Medical Devices Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017:3-4. doi: 10.1115/DMD2017-3374


GOST Style Citations


  1. A randomized, controlled trial of magnetic the­rapy for carpal tunnel syndrome / V. Baute, V.S. Keski­nyan,  E.R. Sweeney [et al.] // Muscle Nerve. – 2018. – Articles in Press.  http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26120
  2. A vertical mouse and ergonomic mouse pads alter wrist position but do not reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome / A.B. Schmid, P.A. Kubler, V. Johnston [et al.] // Applied ergonomics. – 2015. – Vol. 47. – Р. 151-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2014.08.020
  3. Agrawal S. Early Diagnosis and Prevention of Repetitive Strain Injury Induced Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Computer Users / S. Agrawal, M. Rajajeyakumar // Clin Exp Psychol. – 2018. – Vol. 4, N 1. – Р. 188-191. http://doi.org/10.4172/2471-2701.1000188
  4. Analysis of Expected Costs of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Treatment Strategies / M.T. Milone, A. Karim, C.S. Klifto [et al.] // HAND. – 2017. – Р. 1558944717743597. http://doi.org/10.1177/1558944717743597
  5. Association of psychological distress, quality of life and costs with carpal tunnel syndrome severity: a cross-sectional analysis of the PALMS cohort / C. Jerosch-Herold, J. Houghton, J. Blake [et al.] // BMJ Open. – 2017. – Vol. 7, №. 11. – Р. 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017732
  6. Bland J.D.P. Hydrodissection for treatment of car­pal tunnel syndrome / J.D.P. Bland // Muscle nerve. – 2018. – Vol. 57, N 1. – Р. 4-5. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25759
  7. Brown J.N. Stop Your Mouse from Twisting Your Arm / J.N. Brown // Anthropology-Based Compu­ting. – Springer, Cham, 2016. – Р. 175-188. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24421-1_14
  8. Calandruccio J.H. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Making Evidence-Based Treatment Decisions / J.H. Calan­druccio, N.B. Thompson // Orthopedic Clinics. – 2018. – Vol. 49, N 2. – Р. 223-229. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2017.11.009
  9. Carpal compression, Phalen’s and Tinel’s test: Which one is more suitable for carpal tunnel syndrome? / M. Almasi-Doghaee, R. Boostani, M. Saeedi [et al.] // Iranian J. Neurology.– 2016. – Vol. 15, N 3. – Р. 173-174.
  10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical features, diagno­sis, and management /L. Padua, D. Coraci, C. Erra [et al.] // The Lancet Neurology. – 2016. – Vol. 15, N 12. – P. 1273-1284. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30231-9
  11. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Effectiveness of Phy­sical Therapy and Electrophysical Modalities. An Up­dated Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials /B.M. Huisstede, P. Hoogvliet, T.P. Franke [et al.] // Arch. Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. – 2017. Artic­les in Press.  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.08.482.
  12. Chae W. The Effects of Computer Game Exposure on Musculoskeletal Pathological Symptoms in Adolescents / W. Chae, J. Jung // Koreyan J. Sport Bio­mechanics. – 2018. – Vol. 28, N 1. – Р. 55-60.
  13. Comparison Between Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection Above Versus Below the Median Nerve in Mild to Moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial / A. Babaei-Ghazani, N. Nikbakht, B. Forogh [et al.] // Amer. J. Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. – 2018. – Vol. 97, N 6. – Р. 407-413. http://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000877
  14. Computer Use and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case-control Study / D.J. Bhanderi, D.G. Mishra,  S.M. Parikhet [et al.] // Indian J. Occupational En­vironmental Medicine. – 2017. – Vol. 21, N 3. – P. 109-114. http://doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_66_17
  15. DanceDanceThumb: Tablet app for rehabilitation for carpal tunnel syndrome / T. Watanabe, Y. Sugiura, N. Miyata [et al.] // Inter. Conference on Entertainment Computing. – Springer, Cham, 2017. – Р. 473-476. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66715-7_66
  16. Does Taping Affect the Rehabilitation of Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? A Ran­domized Controlled Trial / L. Eraslan, G. Baltaci, D. Yuce [et al.]. // AND. – 2016. – Vol. 11, N 1. – Р. 33-137. http://doi.org/10.1177/1558944716660555jf
  17. Durham C.O. It's All in the Wrist: Diagnosis and Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome / O. Durham, K. VanRavenstein // rthopaedic Nursing. – 2017. – Vol. 36, – Р. 323-327. http://doi.org/10.1097/NOR.0000000000000390
  18. Manoharan T. Effect of Break Time on the Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Development among Intensive Computer Users in Malaysia / Manoharan, R. Yusuff, N. Zulkifli [et al.] // ife Sciences, Medicine and Biomedicine. – 2018. – Vol. 2, N  – Р. 1-8. http://doi.org/10.28916/lsmb.2.1.2018.7
  19. Effectiveness of neural mobilization and ul­trasound therapy on pain severity in carpal tunnel syndro­me /M. Alam, M. Khan, S.I. Ahmed [et al.]  //Biomedical Research and Therapy. – 2018. – Vol. 5, N 4. – Р. 2187-2193. http://doi.org/10.15419/bmrat.v5i4.432
  20. Effectiveness of nerve gliding exercises on carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review / R. Ballestero-Pé­rez, G. Plaza-Manzano, A. Urraca-Gesto [et al.]. // J. Ma­nipulative Physiol. Therapeutics. – 2017. – Vol. 40, N 1. – Р. 50-59.
  21. Electromyographic analysis of relevant muscle groups during completion of computer tasks using dif­ferent computer mouse positions / S. Sako, H. Sugiura, H. Tanoue [et al.] // Inter. J. Occupational Safety Ergonomics. – 2017. – Vol. 23, N 2. – Р. 267-273.  http://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2016.1275140
  22. Ergonomic evaluation of new wrist rest on using computer mouse / B.S. Liu, K.N. Huang, H.J. Chen  [et al.] // Advanced Materials for Science and Engineering (ICAMSE): International Conference on. – IEEE, 2016. – P. 59-61. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICAMSE.2016.7840230
  23. Ergonomic assessment of musculoskeletal disor­ders risk among the computer users by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment method / E. Habibi, Z. Mohammadi, A.G. Sartang [et al.] // Inter. J. Environmental Health Engineering. – 2016. – Vol. 5, N 1. – Р. 15-22. http://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9183.190641
  24. Estimation of health-related-quality of life de­pends on which utility measure is selected for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome / G. Nazari, J.C. MacDer­mid, J. Bain [et al.] // J. Hand Therapy. – 2017. – Vol. 30, N 3. – Р. 299-306. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2016.11.001
  25. Gaudez C. What’s the best computer mouse? A comparative study of wrist angles and carp extensor activity when using three mice / C. Gaudez, F. Cail // Com­puter methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering. – 2017. – Vol. 20, N 1 sup1l. – Р. 89-90. http://doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2017.1382875
  26. Guner A. The effectiveness of the low-power laser and kinesiotaping in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, a pilot study / A. Guner, L. Altan, M.K. Aksoy // Rheumatology Inter.. – 2018. – Vol. 38, N 5. – Р. 895-904. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-018-4020-6
  27. Handheld electrical impedance myography probe for assessing carpal tunnel syndrome / Z. Li, L. Chen, Y. Zhu [et al.] // Annals of biomedical engineering. – 2017. – Vol. 45, N 6. – Р. 1572-1580. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-017-1819-3
  28. High-resolution ultrasonography of cross-sec­tional area of median nerve compared with electro-diagnostic study in carpal-tunnel syndrome / M. Sahebari, M.P. Rad, M.A. Nahayatiet [et al.] // Rheumatology Research. – 2017. – Vol. 2, N 4. – Р. 127-131. http://doi.org/10.22631/RR.2017.69997.1031
  29. Johnson M.E. Repetitive Upper Extremity Mus­culoskeletal Risks Utilizing Wearable Sensor Arm Band versus Keyboard and Mouse for Input /M.E. Johnson, B. Conrardy, Z. Kohama [et al.] // IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings. – Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE), 2017. – Р. 1332-1338.
  30. Joshi V.S. Nerve muscle physiology changes with yoga in professional computer users / V.S. Joshi // National J. Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology. – 2017. – Vol. 7, N 8. – P. 815-819. http://doi.org/10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0410002042017
  31. Kargar N. Posture and discomfort assessment in computer users while using touch screen device as compared with mouse-keyboard and touch pad-keyboard / N. Kargar, A.R. Choobineh , A.R. Choobineh [et al.] // Work. – 2018. – Vol. 59, N 3. – Р. 341-349. http://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-182685
  32. Lee H.J. Validation of known risk factors as­sociated with carpal tunnel syndrome: A retrospective nationwide 11-year population-based cohort study in South Korea / H.J. Lee, H.S. Lim, H.S. Kim // bioRxiv. – 2018. – P. 253666. http://doi.org/10.1101/253666
  33. Loh P.Y. Impact of keyboard typing on the morphological changes of the median nerve / P.Y. Loh, W.L. Yeoh, H. Nakashima [et al.] // J. Occupational health. – 2017. – Vol. 59, N 5. – Р. 408-417. http://doi.org/10.1539/joh.17-0058-OA
  34. Loh P.Y. The Effect of Keyboard Typing on the Me­dian Nerve at the Proximal Carpal Tunnel / P.Y. Loh, W.L. Yeoh, S. Muraki // Japan. J. Ergonomics. – 2017. – Vol. 53, Suppl. 2. – Р. 576-579. http://doi.org/10.5100/jje.53.S576
  35. Muscle echogenicity ratio can indicate severity of carpal tunnel syndrome / D.Y. Park, S. Kang, J.S. Jeong [et al.] // Muscle Nerve. – 2018. – Articles in Press http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26116
  36. Pachoulakis I. Computer-Aided Rehabilitation for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome using Exergames / I. Pachoulakis, D. Tsilidi, A. Analyti // Advances in Ima­ge and Video Processing. – 2018. – Vol. 6, N 2. – Р. 44-56. http://doi.org/10.14738/aivp.62.4458
  37. Patient-Reported Disability Measures Do Not Cor­relate with Electrodiagnostic Severity in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome / J.E. Tulipan, K.F. Lutsky, M.G. Mal­ten­fort [et al.] // Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open. – 2017. – Vol. 5, N 8. – Р. 1-6. http://doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000001440
  38. Quality of Care and Patient‐reported Outcomes in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study / T.K. Nuckols, C. Conlon, M. Robbins [et al.] // Muscle Nerve. – 2018. – Vol. 57, N 6. – Р. 896-904. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26041
  39. Reappraisal of the F/M amplitude ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome / F. Ginanneschi, M. Mondelli, A. Aretini [et al.] // Functional Neu­rology. – 2017. – Vol. 32, N 1. – Р. 23-27. http://doi.org/10.11138/FNeur/2017.32.1.023
  40. Safety and efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome; a randomized controlled trial / S.A. Raeissadat, A. Karimzadeh, M. Ha­shemi [et al.] // BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. – 2018. – Vol. 19, N 1. – P. 49-44. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-1963-4
  41. Shiri R. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndro­me: a meta-analysis / R. Shiri, K. Falah-Hassani // J. Neurological Sciences. – 2015. – Vol. 349, N 1. – Р. 15-19. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2014.12.037
  42. The diagnostic efficacy of clinical findings and electrophysiological studies in carpal tunnel syndrome / N.B. Pekel, P.N. Senol, D. Yildiz  [et al.] // Eur. Research J. – 2017. – Vol. 3, N 1. – Р. 62-67. http://doi.org/10.18621/eurj.2017.5000195868
  43. Theoretical impact of simulated workplace-based primary prevention of carpal tunnel syndrome in a French region / Y. Roquelaure, N. Fouquet, E. Chazelle [et al.] // BMC public health. – 2018. – Vol. 18, N 1. – Р. 426-437. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5328-6
  44. Ural F.G. Acupuncture Effect on Median Nerve Morphology in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Ultrasonographic Study / F.G. Ural, G.T. Оzturk // Evi­dence-Based Complementary Alternative Medicine. – 2017. – Vol. 2017. – Р. 1-6.  http://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7420648
  45. Vignais N. Posture and loading in the patho­mechanics of carpal tunnel syndrome: a review / N. Vi­gnais, J. Weresch, P.J. Keir //Critical Reviews™ in Bio­medical Engineering. – 2016. – Vol. 44, N 5. – Р. 397-410.  http://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2017021073
  46. Weresch J.A. Development of an Ergonomic Tool to Predict Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Risk Based on Estimated Carpal Tunnel Pressure / J.A. Weresch, P.J. Keir // IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics Human Factors. – 2018. – Vol. 6, №. 1. – Р. 32-42. http://doi.org/10.1080/24725838.2018.1454360.
  47. Werner R.A. How can we best estimate the Incidence and Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? /R.A. Werner, A. Franzblau // Muscle Nerve. – 2018. – Vol. 57, N 7. – Р. 1–11 http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26148
  48. What Types of Treatment Are Provided for Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Insurance / N.A. Baker, J. Stevans, L. Terhorst [et al.] // PM&R. – 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.02.004
  49. Woo E.H.C. Effects of electronic device overuse by university students in relation to clinical status and anatomical variations of the median nerve and transverse carpal ligament / E.H.C. Woo, P. White, C.W.K. Lai // Muscle Nerve. – 2017. – Vol. 56, N 5. – Р. 873-880.  http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25697
  50. Zhu M. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Soft Relief Device for Typing Applications /M. Zhu, W. Adams, P. Polygerinos //2017 Design of Medical Devices Confe­rence: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017. – Р. 3-4. doi:10.1115/DMD2017-3374.