DOI: https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2019.2.170123

Using of dexmedetomidine in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

D. Surkov

Abstract


The negative impacts of standard pharmacologic sedative agents suggest that alternative agents should be investigated. Dexmedetomidine could be the new option for sedation in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy requiring mechanical ventilation. The aim – to determine the impact of dexmedetomidine and other sedatives on the cerebral blood flow and outcomes of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in term neonates. Data of 205 term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by Sarnat scale stage II-III were collected during ≤72 hours of life. The infants were divided using a simple open randomization by pharmacological sedative agents during mechanical ventilation into dexmedetomidine group (n=46) and the control group (n=159), which included morphine, sodium oxybutyrate, and diazepam in standard recommended doses. A comparative analysis of the effect of dexmedetomidine and other drugs on cerebral perfusion and outcomes of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was performed. A significant difference between groups in days of trachea extubation (p=0.022) was found; the chance for babies to be extubated before the 7th day of treatment was significantly higher in the dexmedetomidine group 68% versus 33% in the control group (p=0.018) with HR 0.48 (95% CI 0.27-0.86, p=0.011). Also, the NIRS index rScO2 differed significantly between the studied and control groups on the 1st day of treatment (65% versus 79%, p=0.012) and on the 2nd day of treatment (74% versus 81%, p=0.035). Mean arterial pressure was higher in the dexmedetomidine group compared to the control group – (58 [51-65] mm Hg versus 53 [46-60] mm Hg, p<0.001), with a lower dose of dobutamine (EV -1.87, 95% CI from -3.25 to -0.48, p=0.009). In the dexmedetomidine group, the rate of seizures was significantly lower on the 1st day of obser­vation (4.3% versus 48.3%, p <0.001); the incidence of unfavorable outcome sueh as cerebral leukomalacia was also 7 times lower in the dexmedetomidine group compared to the control group (2.2% versus 15.1%, p=0.018). Dexme­detomidine is a safe sedative agent with a stable hemodynamic profile, without adverse influence on cerebral perfusion and possible neuroprotective effects in term infants with HIE, as addition to standard therapeutic hypothermia.


Keywords


hypoxia; ischemia; encephalopathy; dexmedetomidine; neonates; mechanical ventilation

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