Effectiveness of treatment of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases on the background of reactivation of persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection
Keywords:systemic autoimmune diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, antiviral therapy
The article presents the study of effectiveness of inosine pranobex (IP) in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) on the background of reactivation of persistent Epstein-Barr (EBV) infection. Among 380 patients with SAD (systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic vasculitides, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis), in 144 patients (37.9%) the reactivation of persistent EBV infection was detected through virus DNA identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three biological matrices (blood, saliva, scraping from the lesion site). 48 patients were receiving inosine pranobex at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day for three months. Treatment efficacy was controlled by studying the levels of expression of miR-146а, miR-155, miR EBV (BART-13 and BART-15), TLR9, the quantity of lymphocytes populations and subpopulations. After treatment, PCR results showed a decrease in viral replication in 66.7% of cases. The use of IP contributed to a significant decrease in the level of IgM, IgG specific antibodies, an increase in the level of expression of anti-inflammatory miR-146a, a decrease in the level of expression of pro-inflammatory miR-155 which may signify the strengthening of antiviral control. The study data demonstrated the decrease in the expression of miR EBV (BART-13 and BART-15) and TLR9 on the immunocompetent cells that can also be attributed to the criteria for IP effectiveness. The effectiveness of IP was also proved by the stabilization of cell mechanisms, namely the tendency to normalizing T and B cell populations, decrease in the number of natural killer cells and activated cells (CD25+, CD3+ HLA DR+). On the other hand, the number of lymphocytes with suppressor activity (CD4+25+) remained significantly high mitigating autoimmune aggression. The results of the study show that the use of IP for treating the acute phase of EBV infection contributed to the decrease of repliсative activity of the virus; suppressing the aggressiveness of autoimmune reactions. The decrease in the expression of miR EBV (BART-13 and BART-15) can be recommended as a criterion for the IP effectiveness; the decrease in the expression of TLR9 on immunocompetent cells –as a criterion for suppressing autoimmune reactions.
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