Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men


  • Wasis Sumartono Guest lecturer, Institut Kesehatan Indonesia (IKI) Jakarta, Jalan Boulevard Raya, Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta. Indonesia. Tei. +62 21 4585 8899. website: www.ikijakarta.ac.id, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9047-735X
  • Hasbullah Thabrany Center for Social Security Studies Universitas Indonesia (CSSUI), Gedung Program Pasca Sarjana, Jl. Salemba 4, Jakarta, Indonesia., Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6711-2547
  • Ratna Meidyawati Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia, Depok, West Java Indonesia 16424., Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6760-5352


heavy smoking, severe dental caries, Indonesian men, Basic Health Research 2007


BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries.

METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534). Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job), tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400) and never smokers (BI = 0). The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity.

RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1–399) and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005). Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37–1.53) and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59–1.81), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.


Author Biographies

Wasis Sumartono, Guest lecturer, Institut Kesehatan Indonesia (IKI) Jakarta, Jalan Boulevard Raya, Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta. Indonesia. Tei. +62 21 4585 8899. website: www.ikijakarta.ac.id

I have retired from NIHRD (National Institute of Health Research and Development) MOH R.I. (Ministry of Health , Rep. of Indonesia). At this moment I am a guest lecturer in Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Persada Husada Indonesia, Jatiwaringin Junction, Jl. Jatiwaringin Raya No. 24 Kav. 47, East Jakarta. Indonesia 13620. This is a small private school of public health and nursing. I am still seeking a better job, if possible as a lecturer. I want to dedicate the rest of my life as a university lecturer.

Hasbullah Thabrany, Center for Social Security Studies Universitas Indonesia (CSSUI), Gedung Program Pasca Sarjana, Jl. Salemba 4, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Prof Hasbullah Thabrany is The Chair of 

Center for Social Security Studies Universitas Indonesia (CSSUI), Gedung Program Pasca Sarjana, Jl. Salemba 4, Jakarta,  Indonesia.

Previously Prof. Hasbullah Thabrany is a senior lecturer in Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok West Java Indonesia 16424. 

Ratna Meidyawati, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia, Depok, West Java Indonesia 16424.

DR. Ratna Meidyawati is a senior lecturer in

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry,  University of   Indonesia,  Depok,   West Java Indonesia 16424. 


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