Assessment of the dental status of drug-addicted patients with parafunction of the dental-jaw apparatus
Keywords:parafunctions, drug addiction, bruxism, dentin, enamel
The number of drug addicts in the world is growing every year. The aim of the study was to assess the dental status of drug-addicted patients with parafunction of the dental-jaw apparatus. We used clinical, analytical, functional and histological research methods. 119 drug-addicted and 110 non-drug-dependent patients aged 18 to 54 were examined. In order to confirm the presence of parafunctions of the dental-jaw apparatus in patients, we conducted an occludogram study, as well as an assessment of the index of parafunctions of the masticatory muscles and the degree of their severity. The structure of tooth tissues was examined by histological method. Examination of drug-addicted patients revealed the presence of numerous carious cavities, secondary adentia, enamel erosion, pathological abrasion, signs of gingivitis and periodontitis, tooth chipping. The prevalence of parafunction of the dental-jaw apparatus, in particular bruxism, in drug-addicted patients is 1.56 times higher than this figure among non-drug addicts. The results of the occludogram and the index of parafunctions of the masticatory muscles differ significantly between the study groups. The mean value of the masticatory muscle parafunction index among drug-addicted patients is 2.06 times significantly higher than the value among non-drug-addicted men and 2.03 times higher among women. Histological examination of the tooth tissues of drug-addicted patients indicates a disorder of the mineralization of both enamel and dentin. Thinning of the peripheral zone of the pulp, which is normally represented by a layer of odontoblasts, which provide regeneration and nutrition of dentin, is more common in persons under 25 years of age. Drug use adversely affects the dental status of patients and the condition of the hard tissues of the tooth.
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